REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Guidelines in Citing Related Literature and Studies
A. Characteristics of the Materials Cited
The following are the characteristics of related literature and studies that should be cited: (Repeated for emphasis)
1. The materials must be as recent as possible. This is important because of the rapid social, political, scientific, and technological changes. Discoveries in historical and archaeological research have also changed some historical facts. Researchers in education and psychology are also making great strides. So, finding fifteen years ago may have little value today unless the study is a comparative inquiry about the past and the present. Mathematical and statistical procedures, however, are a little more stable.
2. Materials must be as objective and unbiased as possible. Some materials are extremely one sided, either politically or religiously biased. These should be avoided.
3. Materials must be relevant to the study. Only materials that have some military to or bearing on the problem researched on should be cited.
4. Materials must not too few but not too many. They must be sufficient enough to give the researcher insight into his problem or to indicate the nature of the present investigation. The number may also depend upon the availability of related materials. This is especially a problem with pioneering studies. Naturally, there are few related materials or even none at all. Ordinarily, from fifteen to twenty-five may do for a master’s thesis and from twenty and above for a doctoral dissertation, depending upon their availability and depth and length of discussions. The numbers, however, are only suggestive but not imperative. These are only the usual numbers observed in theses and dissertations surveyed. For an undergraduate thesis about ten may do.
B. Ways of Citing Related Literature and Studies
The following are the ways of citing related literature and studies:
Cited: Examples: According to Enriquez, praise helps much in learning, etc., (Enriquez, 1981)
Maglaque found out that praise is an important factor in learning, etc., (Maglaque, 1984)
Example: It has been found out that praise is an important aid in learning of children. (Enriquez, 1981)
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