Theories and Principles Unit 4 Dtlls
What is the definition of theory? To me theory is something which is explained to you, a system of ideas intended to explain something, one based on general overview. A definition of principles, to me is to be opinionated on how I feel towards chosen topic. Geoff Petty (2009) states that, `every teacher and every learner has a theory about learning.’ To able to conclude my own theories and principles on planning and enabling learning I need to learn what is accepted to others. Research I understand there are many different theories relating to teaching and learning. Those that I have looked at are Behaviourist, Cognitive and Humanists elements. These are not new concepts. Although that some of these theorists are descended their work is still use into practices.
Behaviourism is primarily associated with Pavlov (classical conditioning) in Russia; and with Thorndike, Watson and particularly Skinner in the United States (operant conditioning). In educational surroundings, behaviourism implies the dominance of the teacher, as in behaviour modification programmes. It can, however, be applied to an understanding of unintended learning. Classical conditioning in its simplest form is a type of conditioning associates by an external stimulus; in Pavlov original experiment this was a bell, with the arrival of a second stimulus which was the food, this resulted in a response to the bell which would have been achieved previously by the food. Frederic Skinner’s work was influenced by Pavlov’s experiment and the ideas of John Watson, father
Bibliography: Skinner, B.F (Reprint 2003). The Technology of Teaching. Cambridge, MA: B.F.Skinner Foundation Petty, G (Reprint 2009). A Practice Guide Teaching Today. N. Thornes Forth Edition Holt, J C 1923- 1985 (revised edition) Classics in child development Knowles, M. and Swanson R.A, The Adult Learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resources Harkin, J., Turner, G. and Dawn, T. (2001). Teaching Young Adults. London, Routledge. Rogers. C and J.H Freiberg (Third Edition) Freedom to learn