The Watson Theory
Ann Pender- Bellard
March 14, 2011
The Watson Theory
Watson calls caring the ethical principle or standard by which curing interventions are measured (Alligood, 2006). Watson’s caring theory evolves in a global state no longer limited to facility settings. Watson’s theory is the development of a caring fluid experience expanding from the person to the community onward to society. Her six Caritas process uses creativity and a scientific problem-solving method for caring decision making, and preserving the “human caring model.” Caring and healing bridges to form a complete relationship while developing and recognizing the transpersonal aspect of the relationship (Watson, 2007). Watson has refined her caring theory throughout the years; however, her basic concepts have remained unchanged. Her theory continues to focus on human caring and the subjective life experiences of self and other. This philosophy promotes the human dimension of the nurse and the person in the realm of one’s spirituality. Watson’s caring theory reflects on human values and revolves around caring and healing. Her transpersonal teaching-learning undertakes the idea of encompassing more than teaching to invoke a compassionate and caring relationship between the patient and the nurse. Teaching and learning are in a caring manner, promoting a readiness to learn, thus reinforcing the human dimension of nursing. Nursing goals should direct and exhibit a benevolent act leading to a caring moment derived from self and delivered to other permitting a spiritual presence for both.
Concepts of Watson Theory: Carative Factors
“I developed the “carative factors” in 1979 and revised them in 1985 and 1988b,” I viewed the “carative factors” as a guide for the core of nursing. I use the term carative to contrast with conventional medicine’s curative factors” (Watson, 1997b). Believing that care and love are essential to the patient’s healing environment as well as the nurses will certainly open a caring relationship for both patient and nurse. A spiritual wellness will provide each with a sense of wholeness and genuine embracement of faith and healing relationship. Her carative factors attempt to “honor the human dimensions of nursing’s work and the inner life world and subjective experiences of the people we serve” (Watson, 2007, p. 130). Watson introduces a spiritual caring consciousness addressing the whole person. Caring transforms into an assessment tool that one can visualize, touch, hear, and verbalize, by interacting with the person in the direction of true human needs. Focus on the holistic attitude of caring will reveal an inspired and centralized bonding thereby creating a stronger understanding of human the experience. When human needs are met the patient and nurse creation a fundamental awareness of spiritual wholeness; enveloping a positive and holistic entity.
Each processes listed below enables a nurse to travel beyond the norm to pursue a “transpersonal” interaction delivering a human to human response, which is for the greater good of both patient and nurse. Not only does this concept promote faith and hope related to the “here and now” for the nurse, it is a fluid concept that embodies the soul and in essences continues to build many influencing caring moments. The carative factors are inclusive of 10 elements of factors, in 2001 Watson refined the carative factors to clinical caritas processes and below are the original factors and the revised 2001 caritas process (Watson, 2007):
• Humanistic-altruistic system of value- practicing loving - kindness and equanimity for self and others.
• Instillation of faith-hope - Authentically present to/enabling/sustaining/honoring
deep belief system and subjective world of self/other.
• Cultivation of sensitivity to self and others - Cultivating of one’s own spiritual practices; deepening self awareness, going beyond...
References: Alligood, M.R. & Marriner, T.A. (2006). Nursing theory: Utilization & application (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc.
Rafael, A. R. (2000). Watson 's philosophy, science, and theory of human caring as a conceptual framework for guiding community health practices. Advances in Nursing Science, 2(23), 34-49. Retrieved from http://EBSCO host.
Watson, J. (1997b). The theory of human caring: Retrospective and prospective. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10(1), 49-52. Retrieved from http://www.humancaring.org/conted/Pragmatic
Watson, J. (2007, Jan). Watson 's theory of human caring and subjective living experiences; Caritive factors/caritas processes as a disciplinary guide to the professional nursing practice. Texto Contexto Enferm, 16(11), 129-135. Retrieved from http://www.scielo.br/pdf/tcel/v16n1/a16v16n1.pdf
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