The Roots of Islamic Revolution in Iran

Topics: Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Iranian Revolution Pages: 18 (6725 words) Published: June 18, 2013

The objective of this paper is realize the main reasons of the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 and see what is changed by revolution. In 1979, a drastic change has been occurred in Iran. It was a revolution in the true sense of the concept for its lust for justice, liberty and equality. It was also a popular uprising against imperialism of which all revolutions had the same stand. But it has also many novelties not to the theory, but for the Islamic perspectives. First and foremost, it was a breaking point within the Islamic history in general and within the Shi’ite tradition in particular1. To understand and anlyze; todays politic norms ,practical politics of Iran it is so important to know; which things that islamic revolution include, how was the political and social situation before ,during and after the revolution. Beside this Iranian Islamıc Revolution one of the biggestand most important revolution in the World history also it has an anti- imperialist attitude. For these reasons it worthfull to write and read about it. In this article firstly we try to understand how was the religion and society pattern of Iran with historical background, before the revolution. Because i belive that religious structures, the relationship between religion and goverment and historical background of Iran indicates the main reasons of Islamic Revolution of Iran. For this section we will look which relegious denomination has majority in this territory and how was their relations with political authority. The reason why we look the dominant relegious denomination and relegion pattern is, influence of relegion on political system is pretty strong. We also look the where Shi’i ulama take place in Iranian history and how Shi’i ulama took power. Then article continues with islamic revolution process, in oher words we will focus on the things which led to the revolution. The attitude of shah, modernization project, interference in the internal affairs of other countries, 1

Dr. Ünal GÜNDOĞAN,” Geçmişten Bugüne İran İslam Devrimi: Genel Değerlendirme”, Ortadoğu Analiz Dergisi, Mayıs 2011 - Cilt: 3 - Sayı: 29,sy.93

the economy that getting worse, strugle for political authority between ulama and shah . All these things has a effect on to revolution comes to alive. Also we will mention about the other things that has a effection revolution process.

IRAN and SHI’ISM The findings about first humanbeing at Iran plateu is approximately one thousand years old (the lower paleolithic age). At 691 Iran conquered by Muslim Arabs. Since that conquer Islam became the domiant religion in Iran. From XI. Century to XVI. Century Iran dominated by Turkish dynasties. After that at XVI.century Safevi Dynasty that founded by Shah Ismail, provide the political integrity of country and Shi´ism became offical religion in Iran.

Definition of Shi’ism The words “Şia” which is origin Arabic, comes from the roots of he word: “Müşayaa”and its meaining: a person who follow somebody (birine uyanlar). In Islamic History Shi meaning the people who follow Hz. Muhammed’s bridegroom Ali, after Hz. Muhammed died. Shis strongly argue that caliphate must pass to the family of Hz. Muhammed, in other meaning pass to the Ali and his sons. At he era of Ali’s caliphate; Islamic World separated in two by who don’t accept the Ali’s caliphate with leadership Muaviye. Then Ali was murdered in 661 and his son Hasan take the caliphate but Muaviye killed Hasan. So caliphate pass the brother of Hasan;Huseyin . son of muaviye, yezid see Huseyin as a rival.People that live in Kufe want to the Husyim’s caliphate so they invited Huseyin to Kufe but Yezid had heard this news and welcome Huseyin and his family with a big army and killed Huseyin and his family. This occurrence called Karbala massacre. And this event may also the born of Shi’ism. Shi’ism has got three denomination, Zeyidiyye, İsmaliyye and ca’fer,yye. Among them most...

Bibliography:  W. Branigin, ‘Abadan Mood Turns Sharply against the Shah,’Washington Post  Kurzman, The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran  Abrahamian, Iran: Between Two Revolutions (1982)  Taheri, Spirit (1985)  Moin, Khomeini(2000)  Abrahamian, Iran (1982)  Mackey, Iranians  Brumberg, Reinventing Khomeini (2001)  Momen, Moojan, An Introduction to Shi 'i Islam, Yale University Press, 1985  Schirazi, The Constitution of Iran  (1997),  Zabih, Sepehr, Iran Since the Revolution, Johns Hopkins Press, 1982  Graham, Iran (1980),  Arjomand, Turban (1998),  Harney, The Priest (1998),  Kapuscinski, Shah of Shahs (1985)  The Ulama-State Relations in Iran: 19211941Mohammad H. Faghfoory International Journal of Middle East Studies , Vol. 19
 Nikki Keddie, Roots of Revolution: An Interpretive History of Modern Iran, Yale University Press,  New Haven, 1981.  Mansur Muaddel, “İran’da Şii Ulema ve Devlet”, Serpil Üşür (der.), İran Devrimi: Din, Anti-Emperyalizm ve Sol,Belge Yayınları, İstanbul, 1992  The Shi 'i Ulama and the State in Iran Mansoor Moaddel Theory and Society , Vol. 15
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