The Most Controversial American Presidents

Topics: President of the United States, Richard Nixon, Abraham Lincoln Pages: 25 (9320 words) Published: January 11, 2011
Chapter I. George Washington4
I.1 Early life4
I.2 Presidency5
I.3 Retirement and death6
Chapter II. Abraham Lincoln7
II.1 Early life and education7
II.2 Presidency and the Civil War8
II.3 Assassination13
Chapter III. J. F. Kennedy15
III.1 Early life and education15
III.2 Presidency17
III.3 Assassination19
Chapter IV. Richard Nixon21
IV.1 Early life and education21
IV.2 Presidency22
IV.3 Death and funeral23
Chapter V. Theodore Roosevelt24
V.1 Early life and education24
V.2 Presidency 1901–190925
V.3 Later years and death26


I have chosen this subject because I wanted to find out more about the most controversial American presidents: George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, John. F. Kennedy, Richard Nixon and Theodor Roosevelt. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797 and as the commander of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War from 1775 to 1783. Because of his significant role in the revolution and in the formation of the United States, he is often revered by Americans as the "Father of Our Country". Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through its greatest internal crisis, the American Civil War, preserving the Union and ending slavery. He introduced measures that resulted in the abolition of slavery, issuing his Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and promoting the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution. Six days after the large-scale surrender of Confederate forces under General Robert E. Lee, Lincoln became the first American president to be assassinated. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. After Kennedy's military service as commander of the Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 during World War II in the South Pacific, his aspirations turned political. With the encouragement and grooming of his father, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., Kennedy represented Massachusetts's 11th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 as a Democrat, and served in the U.S. Senate from 1953 until 1960. Kennedy defeated then Vice President and Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election, one of the closest in American history. He was the second-youngest President (after Theodore Roosevelt), the first President born in the 20th century, and the youngest elected to the office, at the age of 43. Kennedy is the first and only Catholic and the first Irish American president, and is the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize. Events during his administration include the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early stages of the Vietnam War. Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States from 1969–1974 and was also the 36th Vice President of the United States (1953–1961). Nixon was the only President to resign the office and also the only person to be elected twice to both the Presidency and the Vice Presidency. Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California. After completing his undergraduate work at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law in La Habra. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, he joined the United States Navy, serving in the Pacific theater, and rose to the rank of Lieutenant Commander during World War II. He was elected in 1946 as a Republican to the House of Representatives representing California's 12th...

Bibliography: * Bishop, Joseph Bucklin,(1920)"Theodore Roosevelt and His Time Shown in His Own Letters - Book I
* Thayer, William Roscoe (1919). Theodore Roosevelt: An Intimate Biography,
* Buchanan, John. The Road to Valley Forge: How Washington Built the Army That Won the Revolution (2004). 368 pp.
* Burns, James MacGregor and Dunn, Susan. George Washington. Times, 2004. 185 pp. explore leadership style
* Cunliffe, Marcus. George Washington: Man and Monument (1958), explores both the biography and the myth
* Peterson, Merrill D. (1995). Lincoln in American Memory. Oxford University Press
* Harper, Paul, and Joann P. Krieg eds. John F. Kennedy: The Promise Revisited (1988), scholarly articles on presidency
* Harris, Seymour E. The Economics of the Political Parties, with Special Attention to Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy (1962)
* Kotlowski, Dean J. (2001). Nixon 's Civil Rights: Politics, Principle, and Policy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.  
* Nixon, Richard (1978). RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. Simon & Schuster.
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