The Impact of Artificial Intelligence
Technology has advanced at an exponential rate. Computers were invented not too long ago and we can see how in just a few decades computers have a lot more capabilities, store more memory, perform more task, and in a less amount of time, come in smaller sizes, and are portable. Artificial Intelligence has brought much anticipation in society and scientists, researchers, and inventors are working hard to create such. There have been promises of many different inventions that will make life easier and better for humankind and at the rate they are going one can see that it will happen. People’s life has changed dramatically and it has become dependent on the artificial intelligence that they have today, it is a wonder as to how much it will change society with the success of truly inventing artificial intelligence that can reason logically and master human language. Before we go any further, let’s take a look at the history behind artificial intelligence.
Evidence of Artificial Intelligence folklore can be traced back to ancient Egypt, but with the development of the electronic computer in 1941, developed in both the U.S. and Germany, the technology finally became available to create machine intelligence. The first computer required large, separate air-conditioned rooms, and involved the separate configuration of thousands of wires to get the program started. In 1949 a better version of the computer was invented, the stored program computer, it made the job of entering a program easier. With the advances in computer theory it led to computer science which eventually led to AI (Artificial Intelligence). Although the computer provided the technology necessary for AI, it was not until the early 1950’s that the link between human intelligence and machines was really observed. A man named Norbert Wiener did research into feedback loops and was able to theorize that all intelligent behavior was the result of feedback mechanisms and they could possibly be simulated by machines. In late 1955, Newell and Simon developed the The Logic Theorist, considered by many to be the first AI program. In 1956 John McCarthy, regarded as the father of AI, organized a conference called “The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence.” It was held in Vermont and it drew the talent and expertise of others interested in machine intelligence for a month of brainstorming. It was not a huge success but because of McCarthy the field is now known as Artificial Intelligence and it served to lay the groundwork for the future of AI research. In 1957, the first version of a new program The General Problem Solver (GPS) was tested. The program developed by the same pair which developed the Logic Theorist. The GPS was an extension of Weiner’s feedback principle, and was capable of solving a greater extent of common sense problems. A couple of years after the GPS, IBM contracted a team to research artificial intelligence. Herbert Gelerneter spent 3 years working on a program for solving geometry theorems. In 1958 McCarthy announced his new development; the LISP language, which is still used today. LISP stands for LISt Processing, and was soon adopted as the language of choice among most AI developers. In 1968 the microworlds program created SHRDLU which consisted of research and programming in small worlds (such as with a limited number of geometric shapes). Another advancement in the 1970’s was the invention of the expert system. Expert systems predict the probability of a solution under set conditions. In 1972 the PROLOGUE language was developed. During the 1980’s AI was moving at a faster pace, and further into the corporate sector. In 1986, US sales of AI-related hardware and software surged to $425 million. In 1991 the military put AI based hardware to the test of war during Desert Storm. AI-based technologies were used in missile systems, heads-up-displays, and other advancements.
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