Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is one of the first theories of motivation and probably the best-known one. It was first presented in 1943. in Dr. Abraham Maslow’s article "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review, and was further expanded in his book “Toward a Psychology of Being”. Maslow tried to formulate a needs-based framework of human motivation. His research was based upon his clinical experiences with humans, rather than prior psychology theories from authors such as Freud and B.F. Skinner, which were largely theoretical or based upon animal behavior.
The basis of Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory is that people are motivated by needs that remain unsatisfied, and that certain lower factors have to be satisfied in order for higher needs to be recognized as unfulfilled. Maslow presented five sets of human needs that drive human behavior. These needs have been organized into hierarchy of relative dominance according to their appearance in human life.
Figure 1: Maslow’s pyramid of needs
Also known as Survival needs, are those required to sustain life, such as: * Breathing
* Sexual desire etc.
According to this theory, if these fundamental needs are not satisfied then one will surely be motivated to satisfy them. Safety Needs
Once physiological needs are met, one's attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm. Such needs might be fulfilled by: * Living in a safe area
* Medical insurance
* Job security
* Financial reserves
According to the Maslow hierarchy, if a person feels threatened, needs further up Maslow's Needs Pyramid will not receive attention until that need has been resolved. Social Needs
Once a person has met the lower level physiological and safety needs, higher level motivators awaken Abraham Maslow was born April 1, 1908 in Brooklyn, New York. He died in California on June 8, 1970 due to a heart attack. Early Life:
Abraham Maslow grew up in Brooklyn, New York, the first of seven children born to his Jewish parents who emigrated from Russia. Maslow later described his early childhood as unhappy and lonely, and he spent much of his time in the library immersed in books. Eventually, Maslow went on to study law at City College of New York (CCNY) and married his first-cousin Bertha Goodman. He later switched to the University of Wisconsin where he developed an interested in psychology and found a mentor in psychologist Harry Harlow who served as his doctoral advisor. Maslow earned all three of his degrees in psychology from the University of Wisconsin: a bachelor's degree in 1930, a master's degree in 1931 and a doctorate in 1934. Career:
Abraham Maslow began teaching at Brooklyn College in 1937 and continued to work as a member of the school's faculty until 1951. During this time, he was heavily influenced by Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer and anthropologist Ruth Benedict. Maslow believed that they were such exceptional people that he began to analyze and take notes on their behavior. This analysis served as the basis for his theories and research on human potential. During the 1950s, Maslow became one of the founders and driving forces behind the school of thought known as humanistic psychology. His theories including the hierarchy of needs, self-actualization and peak experiences became fundamental subjects in the humanist movement.
Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and Personality. NY: Harper.
Maslow, A. (1962). Toward a Psychology of Being. NY: Van Nostrand. References
Boeree, C. G. (1998) Abraham Maslow: 1908-1970. Found online at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html DeCarvalho, R. S. (1991). The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. NY: Praeger. Maslow, Abraham (1998). Towards a Psychology of Being. Wiley; 3 edition. PBS. (1998). Abraham Maslow. A Science Odyssey. Found online at...
References: Boeree, C. G. (1998) Abraham Maslow: 1908-1970. Found online at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
Maslow, Abraham (1998). Towards a Psychology of Being. Wiley; 3 edition.
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Comments on Prof. McClelland 's paper in M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1955 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1955), pp. 65-69.
Comments on Prof
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