top-rated free essay

The Fog

By yuniverse Oct 29, 2013 788 Words

Pesticide Poisoning in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe is a country slightly larger than Montana and is located in the southern end of Africa between South Africa and Zambia. According to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), it has a tropical climate with a population density that consists of 12,619,600 people (Central Intelligence Agency, 2012). Also, the birth rate in Zimbabwe is 32.19 for every 1,000 people in the population, and the death rate is 12.38 for every 1,000 people in the population. Additionally, the infant mortality rate is 28.23 deaths in every 100,000 births. Zimbabwe citizens should expect to live about fifty-two years (Central Intelligence Agency, 2012). Their government is a parliamentary democracy in which the prime minister has the greatest representation in the government” (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012). We are all familiar with the constant threat of infectious diseases in Africa, but there are other hazards that citizens of this area face that are equally worrisome. One of these hazards is called pesticide poisoning, and it is a major concern for the citizens of Zimbabwe.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),” when used properly pesticide sprays increase crop production, preserve produce, combat insect infestations, and control exotic species” (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). However, if safety measures are not enforced and these products are not adequately regulated, they may result in Acute Pesticide Poisoning, or APP. The CDC tells us that “agricultural workers, groundskeepers, pet groomers, fumigators, and a variety of other occupations are at risk for exposure to pesticides…” (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations also points out that “malnutrition and dehydration increase a person’s sensitivity to pesticides” (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2004). This is one of the reasons that APP is more frequent in developing countries, like Zimbabwe, where people are more likely to be suffering from malnutrition and dehydration. According to a study published on the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) website, pesticide poisoning had an incidence rate of 914 in Zimbabwe alone from the year 1998 to 1999 (Tagwireyi, Ball, & Nhachi, 2006 ). One may be surprised to find that of these 914 cases, fifty-eight percent were deliberate self-poisonings compared to twenty-seven percent accidental self-poisonings (Tagwireyi et al., 2006). However, the World Health Organization (WHO) tells us that “many individuals and workers who experience health effects from APP may never present to a health-care provider due to distance from a medical facility, lack of resources, economic factors, fear of job loss or other reasons” (Thundiyil, Stober, Besbelli, & Pronczuk, 2008). Symptoms of pesticide poisoning may vary depending on the level of exposure a person has experienced. According to the Agriculture and Rural Development organization, victims may experience anything from nausea, headache, and difficulty breathing to symptoms as severe as a coma (Agriculture and Rural Development, 2007). Since most of these symptoms are common, they can easily be attributed to another disease. This is supported by the WHO which tells us that “some health-care providers may be unaware of the relationship between pesticide and illnesses and fail to diagnose or report the incident properly”(Thundiyil et al., 2008). For this reason, the WHO tells us, “there are no reliable estimates as to how many people per year suffer from (and die due to) pesticide-related health effects” (Thundiyil et al., 2008).

Clearly, the high rate of APP cases is a major problem especially prominent in developing countries like Zimbabwe. However, there are methods that can be used to lower the number of at-risk people in Zimbabwe’s population. Our goal is to decrease the incidence rate of APP cases in Zimbabwe by enforcing regulation and basing it on human toxicity, rather than rat toxicity. Within five years, this will result in a ten percent decrease in the incidence rate of APP amongst the population of Zimbabwe. Although this is just one small step, by combining it with the help of other measures, we hope to eventually be able to completely eradicate, or greatly reduce this problem.

Agriculture and Rural Development. (2007). Pesticide toxicity hazard and risk. Retrieved from
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Pesticide illness & injury surveillance.
Retrieved from
Central Intelligence Agency. (2012). Africa: Zimbabwe. Retrieved from
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2012). Parliamentary democracy. Retrieved from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2004). Children face higher risks
from pesticide poisoning. Retrieved from Tagwireyi, D., Ball D.E., & Nhachi C.F. (2006). Toxicoepidemiology in Zimbabwe: Pesticide
poisoning admissions to major hospitals. Journal of Clinical Toxicology,44(1), 59-66.
Retrieved from
Thundiyil, J.G., Stober, J., Besbelli, N., & Pronczuk, J. (2008). Acute pesticide poisoning: A proposed classification tool. World Health Organization, 86(3), 161-240. Retrieved from

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • "House of Sand and Fog" Analysis

    ...consumed in their fight for the property's right-full owner that they were blind to the motives for the other's persistence, and both failed to see the significance of what that home had represented to the other individual. Quite honestly - I really found this movie more of a chore to watch then anything else. The only bright spots in this movi...

    Read More
  • The Fog Horn

    ...In the short story "The Fog Horn" by Ray Bradbury the theme "loneliness can be taken for granted" is best shown through the actions of McDunn and the creature in the sea. McDunn describes living at the lighthouse as a "lonely life", but it seems he doesn't mind being alone. McDunn seems to find comfort in the loneliness of the empty sea and the ...

    Read More
  • The House of Sand and Fog

    ...HOUSE OF SAND AND FOG According to me the movie House of Sand and Fog is a tragic, scary, sad film and yet it is a flawless movie, yes a flawless one because it manages to keep the audience at the edge of their seats. Even though it is a slow movie it still grabs the attention on the audience and makes them wonder what is going ...

    Read More
  • The Fog

    ...Alex lay frozen stiff in bed listening to the horrible sounds coming from the ocean. Exactly a year ago something disastrous happened; he and his Mum were fishing out on the ocean when suddenly out of nowhere, fog started enclosing his Mum from every direction suffocating her until all of a sudden... she disappeared into thin air. ...

    Read More
  • Fog of War

    ...Ryan McManus Vietnam Film 2/29/12 The Fog of War In the opening scenes of the documentary, The Fog of War, Robert McNamara states, “Any military commander who is honest admits that he has made mistakes, errors of judgment.” Throughout the documentary, I got the sense that McNamara is asking for forgiveness from the American public and ...

    Read More
  • Morning Fog

    ...Jennifer Cudmore Prof. L. Gertsma English Composition 1 6 September, 2012 “Morning Fog” I often wonder how many opportunities I’ve let slip by throughout my life. Countless colorful sunsets, too many moons rising into the night sky to even count, or even something as simple as a glance in the mirror at my own reflection. Far too many ...

    Read More
  • The Fog of War

    ...Bassam Theodory Political Science 116 05/13/2013 The Fog of War Any military commander was honest with himself will admit that he had made mistakes in the application of the military power. He had killed many people unnecessarily. But he hasn’t destroyed nations. As McNamara said “In this world, there will be no learnin...

    Read More
  • Fog of War Film Analysis

    ...The Fog of War Analysis Nearly 160 million people were killed during the 20th century, and film maker Errol Morris wished to show the reason for this in documentary form. He interviewed former US secretary of Defense Arnold McNamara and the two discussed and analyzed some defining moments in US history, thus "The Fog of War" was made. The ...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.