Arguments will be presented to show, how the expectation theory of motivation can be used to measure the force of motivation for a student to study, to achieve a high grade in his or her math's test. This example will be relevant as the expectation theory can look at whether the reward will motivate/not motivate the student, whether the value of the goal will motivate/not motivate the student, or if the thought high effort will achieve a high grade will motivate/not motivate the student.
The first major expectancy theory was put forward by victor Harold Vroom in 1964 although later writers, such as porter and Lawler in 1968, have both added to and modified the theory in certain respects' (M. Smith., 1991). The expectancy theory works on the basis that to achieve high motivation, hard productive work must gain a valued goal or reward for example in a workplace if you want more money, and more money will come if you work hard then we can predict that you will work hard. If you still want more money, and all you think working hard will get you is smiles from the boss we can predict that you will choose not to work hard, unless you put a high value on smiles from the boss' (D. Buchanan & A. Huczynski., 2004). Victor Harold Vroom formed the expectancy theory using three concepts; Expectancy, Instrumentality and valence. From this he came up with this equation. F (force motivation) =å(V (Valence) x I (instrumentality) x E (expectancy))
The expectancy is the belief that one's effort (E) will result in attainment of the desired performance goals. This belief, or perception, is generally based on an individual's past experience, self confidence (often termed self efficiency), and the perceived difficulty of the performance standard or goal.
Variables affecting the individual's Expectancy perception: o Self Efficiency-
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