University of Nebraska - Lincoln
DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology
Psychology, Department of
The Early Development of Gender Differences
Matthew H. McIntyre
University of Central Florida, firstname.lastname@example.org
Carolyn P. Edwards
University of Nebraska - Lincoln, email@example.com
Follow this and additional works at: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/psychfacpub Part of the Psychiatry and Psychology Commons
McIntyre, Matthew H. and Edwards, Carolyn P., "The Early Development of Gender Differences" (2009). Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology. Paper 402.
This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Psychology, Department of at DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln. It has been accepted for inclusion in Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology by an authorized administrator of DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln.
Published in Annual Review of Anthropology 38 (October 2009), pp. 83-97; doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164338 Copyright © 2009 by Annual Reviews. Used by permission. http://anthro.annualreviews.org
Published online June 17, 2009.
The Early Development
of Gender Differences
Matthew H. McIntyre 1 and Carolyn Pope Edwards 2
1 Department of Anthropology,
University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816;
of Psychology and Child, Youth, and Family Studies,
University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588;
This article reviews findings from anthropology, psychology, and other disciplines about the role of biological factors in the development of sex differences in human behavior, including biological theories, the developmental course of sex differences, and the interaction of biological and cultural gendering processes at different ages. Current evidence suggests that major biological influences on individual differences in human gender, to the extent that they exist, operate primarily in early development, during and especially prior to puberty. Biological effects are likely to be mediated by relatively simple processes, like temperament, which are then elaborated through social interactions (as with mother and peers) into more complex gendered features of adult personality. Biological anthropologists and psychologists interested in gender should direct more attention to understanding how social processes influence the development and function of the reproductive endocrine system.
Keywords: reproductive ecology, evolutionary psychology, patriarchy, dominance, temperament
McIntyre & Pope Edwards
A nnual R eview
The purpose of this review is to summarize
the current evidence about the role of biological factors in the development of human gender over the life course. Rather than accept the distinction between biological sex and cultural gender, we employ the term
gender very broadly to include both sex differences themselves and the cultural and biological processes that shape them. At the risk of over-reaching, we address between-sex
differences, related within-sex variation, and
broader features of human social systems
such as patriarchy. Our review begins with
biological theory about gender and its application to the evolution of human sex differentiation, followed by a discussion of the developmental course of human sex differences and the various biological and social gendering processes. As such, we also consider research from many disciplines, including tentative consideration of sociocultural studies conducted from a humanistic perspective.
One important topic that we unfortunately
leave out is sexuality.
Biological Theories about Human Gender
Biological theory about gender (even if that
term is not always used) refers to the existence, in sexually...
Cited: Alexander GM. 2003. An evolutionary perspective of sex-typed toy preferences: pink, blue,
and the brain
Alexander GM, Hines M. 1994. Gender labels
and play styles—their relative contribution
Alexander GM, Hines M. 2002. Sex differences
in response to children’s toys in nonhuman
Anthes N, Michiels NK. 2007. Precopulatory
stabbing, hypodermic injections and unilateral copulations in a hermaphroditic sea
Archer J, Birring SS, Wu FCW. 1998. The association between testosterone and aggression among young men: empirical findings and a meta-analysis. Aggressive Behav.
Ruble, and Szkrvbalo (2002). Psychol. Bull.
Biringen Z, Emde RN, Brown D, Lowe L, Myers S, Nelson D. 1999. Emotional availability and emotion communication in naturalistic mother-infant interactions: evidence
for gender relations
M, Suwalsky JTD, et al. 2008. Mother-child
emotional availability in ecological perspective: three countries, two regions, two genders
Bourdieu P. 1990. La domination masculine. Actes Rech. Sci. Soc. 84:3–31
A nthropology 38 (2009)
Burgess KB, Marshall PJ, Rubin KH, Fox NA.
Burnham TC. 2007. High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers. Proc. R. Soc.
Campbell DW, Eaton WO. 1999. Sex differences
in the activity level of infants
Cashdan E. 1995. Hormones, sex, and status in
Cleveland HH, Udry JR, Chantala K. 2001. Environmental and genetic influences on sextyped behaviors and attitudes of male and
Batki A, Ahluwalia J. 2000. Sex differences
in human neonatal social perception
Please join StudyMode to read the full document