Supply Chain Linkages in Muga and Eri Silk Sector of Assam:
Every silk industry has a value added chain from silk worm eggs to fabrics or finished garments. In this chain, every activity has its own importance and a specialized knowledge is required to perform each and every activity. Different activities in the supply chain are widely spread all over the state. The activities performed in the areas formed clusters such as clusters of Cocoons production, Silk Reeling, Spinning, Dying and Weaving. All the activities are interdependent with each other. But the linkage among all the players of the chain is established by some intermediaries or traders. First of all we are going to discuss about the Silk Worm Seed Sector: Silk Worm Silk Sector:
As stated above, the production of silk worm seed needs specialized knowledge since it is a complicated activity. The Central Silk Board has set up the Muga Silk Worm Seed Organization (MSSO) in 1983 in order to produce DFLs. Since then the organization has been trying to multiply Muga seed. From the basic seed the multiplication process starts and finally commercial seeds are produced. But from the field study it has been found that the rearers themselves produce a large quantity of seeds for their use. Though Government’s efforts to produce P2 DFL have become successful to some extent, the amount of seeds produced by Government institutes is not at all sufficient to meet the demand of the rearers. So the State Government (Assam Government) has been supporting the private graineurs to produce Muga seed since 2001. But this effort of the Government has not been able to show expected results.
The rearers purchase seeds from the Government as well as private seed suppliers on credit. However, if the purchase is made from the grainages operated by the CSB, cash transaction has to be done. It is also observed that a good number of middlemen supply seed to the rearers for contract rearing. In this case also seed is supplied on credit. The dues with the rearers are settled after the production of cocoons is completed.
In the next page a diagram relating to supply chain linkage of Muga seed production is given.
Supply chain linkage of Muga seed production
The distribution of Muga Seeds from the Government level is done as follows: Category
% OF Selection of Seed
100% seed selection is done
Exclusively under CSB P3 Seed
95% Seed selection is done
Exclusively under CSB P2 Seed
90% Seed Selection is done
85% Seed Selection is done
75% Seed Selection is done
The multiplication of Muga Seed is done in the following way: Figure-2
From the above diagram it can be mentioned that one P2 level Seed Graineur supply seeds to 4 Seed rearers of P1 level and 1 P1 level seed rearer can supply seeds to 16 Commercial rearers with the process of multiplication of seeds. The chain of Muga seed supply for different broods in a year is shown below: Figure-3
Generally the Muga rearers involve in producing Jethua and Kotia cocoons in large scale for commercial purpose. But for seed, cocoons are produced throughout the year either by the private rearers or Government initiatives. The supply chain of Muga Cocoon production and marketing is shown in the next page: Supply Chain Linkages of Muga Cocoon Production and Marketing: Figure-4
It is noteworthy that the entire amount of production of cocoon is sold since its demand is always higher than supply. Cocoon trading is mainly done in Kamrup district of Assam since the biggest Muga weaving cluster –Sualkuchi is situated in the district. The cocoon traders engage agents in order to collect cocoons from rearers scattered in different parts of the state. It is observed that the agents or sub-agents engaged by cocoon traders visit door to door of the rearers and collect cocoon though a small amount...
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