State Security Viz a Viz Personal Privacy

Topics: National security, Central Intelligence Agency, United States Pages: 11 (3826 words) Published: August 24, 2013
1.The whistle blown by Edward Snowden regarding the NSA spying on many a nations

National security is the requirement to maintain the survival of the state through the use of economic power, diplomacy, power projection and political power. The concept developed mostly in the United States after World War II. Initially focusing on military might, it now encompasses a broad range of facets, all of which impinge on the non military or economic security of the nation and the values espoused by the national society. Accordingly, in order to possess national security, a nation needs to possess economic security, energy security, environmental security, etc. Security threats involve not only conventional foes such as other nation-states but also non-state actors such as violent non-state actors, narcotic cartels, multinational corporations andnon-governmental organisations; some authorities include natural disasters and events causing severe environmental damage in this category. Measures taken to ensure national security include:

* using diplomacy to rally allies and isolate threats
* marshalling economic power to facilitate or compel cooperation * maintaining effective armed forces
* implementing civil defense and emergency preparedness measures (including anti-terrorism legislation) * ensuring the resilience and redundancy of critical infrastructure * using intelligence services to detect and defeat or avoid threats and espionage, and to protect classified information * using counterintelligence services or secret police to protect the nation from internal threats Definitions[edit source | editbeta]

There is no single universally accepted definition of national security. The variety of definitions provide an overview of the many usages of this concept. The concept still remains ambiguous, having originated from simpler definitions which initially emphasised the freedom from military threat and political coercion to later increase in sophistication and include other forms of non-military security as suited the circumstances of the time.[1]:1-6[2]:52-54 A typical dictionary definition, in this case from the Macmillan Dictionary (online version), defines the term as "the protection or the safety of a country’s secrets and its citizens" emphasising the overall security of a nation and a nation state.[3] Walter Lippmann, in 1943, defined it in terms of war saying that "a nation has security when it does not have to sacrifice its legitimate ínterests to avoid war, and is able, if challenged, to maintain them by war".[1]:5 A later definition by Harold Lasswell, a political scientist, in 1950, looks at national security from almost the same aspect, that of external coercion:[1]:79 "The distinctive meaning of national security means freedom from foreign dictation." National Security Act of 1947

The concept of national security became an official guiding principle of foreign policy in the United States when the National Security Act of 1947 was signed on July 26, 1947 by U.S. President Harry S. Truman. As amended in 1949, this Act: * created important components of American national security, such as the precursor to the Department of Defense); * subordinated the military branches to the new cabinet level position of Secretary of Defense; * established the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency; Notably, the Act did not define national security, which was conceivably advantageous, as its ambiguity made it a powerful phrase to invoke whenever issues threatened by other interests of the state, such as domestic concerns, came up for discussion and decision. The notion that national security encompasses more than just military security was present, though understated, from the beginning. The Act established the National Security Council so as to "advise the President on the integration of domestic, military and foreign policies...
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