Sociology Theories on Education

Topics: Sociology, Education, Social class Pages: 39 (12398 words) Published: April 27, 2013
AS Sociology For AQA
[2nd Edition]

Unit 2: Education

Chris. Livesey and Tony Lawson

Unit 2: Education

Contents 1. The role and purpose of education, including vocational education and training, in contemporary society. 2. Differential educational achievement of social groups by social class, gender and ethnicity in contemporary society. 3. The significance of educational policies, including selection, comprehensivisation and marketisation, for an understanding of the structure, role, impact and experience of education. 4. Relationships and processes within schools, with particular reference to teacher / pupil relationships, pupil subcultures, the hidden curriculum, and the organisation of teaching and learning. 2 21 42

61

1. The role and purpose of education, including vocational education and training, in contemporary society. employment because there’s no demand for their services. Secondly, on an individual level (in the sense of how people actually experience the impact of institutional arrangements and relationships) the education system functions as an agency of: Secondary Socialisation: In this respect, education is an institution that "broadens the individual's experience" of the social world and, in so doing, prepares children for adult role relationships in the workplace and wider society. For the education system to function properly on both levels it must, according to Functionalists, be: Under this general heading we can outline and examine three main Structuralist perspectives - Functionalism, Marxism and Feminism - and we can begin by identifying the major ideas that characterise each perspective. Meritocratic - a concept that reflects the idea rewards (such as high pay, high status, jobs) are earned on the basis of our abilities and efforts (working hard in school to gain qualifications, for example) rather than simply allocated on the basis of who you know, your family background and so forth. Merit-based systems are also, by their very nature, competitive systems in the sense that different levels of reward and given for different levels of achievement – and children, in this respect, have to continually prove themselves willing to “work to achieve” whatever rewards are on offer. In the contemporary UK educational system, for example, these rewards relate to things like educational qualifications (such as GCSEs and A-levels) that in turn qualify students for certain types of work or entrance to different Universities. Module Link Stratification and Differentiation

The Role of Education: Introduction
There’s little doubt that education, as a social institution, has an important role to play in our society. Whether you view that role positively or negatively, we need to examine a range of perspectives (Structuralist, Interactionist, Postmodern and New Right) that explore the role and purpose of the formal education system in contemporary UK society.

Structuralist Perspectives: Observations

Functionalism
Although Functionalist theory has generally declined in sociological importance in the UK over the past 20 or so years, its influence in shaping educational policy – and hence the role played by the education system shouldn’t be underestimated. This is partly because the basic ideas that sit at the heart of this perspective ideas about consensus, competition and achievement through merit, for example - sit relatively comfortably with modern Conservative, Liberal and Labour political ideas. As a Structuralist perspective (one that focuses on broad groups of people and their behaviour) Functionalist arguments about the role of education focus on: Institutional relationships and functional linkages with wider society. In this respect, therefore, the emphasis here is on how education links to other social institutions, such as the family and the workplace. The complexity of modern social systems means the education system becomes, in effect, a bridge between these institutions in a...

References: Education
Althusser, Louis (1971: first published 1970) “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses” in Louis Althusser “Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays”: Monthly Review. Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (2007) “Gender Pay Gap Narrowest since records began”: Office for National Statistics Ball, Stephen (1981) “Beachside Comprehensive”: Cambridge University Press. Benfield, Caroline (2007) “Women graduates paid less”: Higher Education Statistics Agency Beron, Kurt and Farkas, George (2001) “Family Linguistic Culture and Social Reproduction: Verbal skill from parent to child in the preschool and school”: Population Association of America conference paper. Bourdieu, Pierre (1986) “The Forms of Capital” in Richardson, John (ed) “Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education”, Greenwood Press. Bowles, Herbert and Gintis, Samuel (1976) “Schooling in Capitalist America”: Routledge and Kegan Paul; Bowles, Herbert and Gintis, Samuel (2002) 'Schooling In Capitalist America Revisited ' in Sociology of Education, Volume 75, No. 2: American Sociological Association Boyd, William (1991) “Some parallels between British and US Education reforms”: Centre for Educational Studies. Brimi, Hunter (2005) “The Influence of Cultural Capital on Twenty-First Century Secondary School Literature Curricula”: Electronic Journal of Sociology >www.sociology.org/content/2005/tier1/brimi_cultural_capital.pdf< Collins, Clinton (1993) “Truth as a communicative virtue in a postmodern age: From Dewey to Rorty”: Philosophy of Education Society. Davis, Kingsley and Moore, Wilbert (1945) “Some Principles of Stratification”: American Sociological Review, Vol. 10 No. 2 Deem, Rosemary (1980) “Schooling for Women’s Work”: Routledge and Kegan Paul Department for Education and Skills (2007) “Gender and education: the evidence on pupils in England” >www.dfes.gov.uk/research/data/uploadfiles/RTP01-07.pdfGender< Dewey, John (1916) “Democracy and Education”: The Macmillan Company. Eichler, Margrit (1980) “The Double Standard”: Croom Helm. Elkind, David (1998) “Schooling the Post-Modern Child”: Waldorf Education Research Institute. Foucault, Michel (1977) “Discipline and Punish”: Penguin. Gardner, Howard (2003) “Multiple Intelligences after 20 Years.": American Educational Research Association. Giroux, Henry (1994)“Slacking Off: Border Youth and Postmodern Education”: Routledge. Gordon, Tuula (1996) “Citizenship, difference and marginality in schools - spatial and embodied aspects of gender construction”, in: Murphy, Patricia and Gipps, Caroline (eds) “Equity in the Classroom: towards effective pedagogy for girls and boys”: Falmer Press. Gramsci, Antonio (1971: first published 1930 - 1934) “Selections from the Prison Notebooks” edited and translated by Hoare, Quintin and Nowell Smith, Geoffrey: Lawrence and Wishart Hattersley, Roy and Francis, Paul “Wrong Division”: The Guardian, February 3, 2004 Howe, Neil and Strauss, William (2000) “Millennials Rising”: Vintage. Kampmeier, Anke (2004 ) “Gender and Qualifications”: New Perspectives for Learning - Briefing Paper 45, The European Commission >http://www.pjb.co.uk/npl/BP%2045%20-%20Final%20GENDERQUAL.pdf< Lupton, Ruth (2004) “Do poor neighbourhoods mean poor schools?”: London School of Economics
19
© www.sociology.org.uk
AS Sociology For AQA
Mahony, Pat (1985) “Schools for the Boys: Co-education reassessed”: Hutchinson.
Education
Mackenzie, Jeannie (1997) “It 's a Man 's Job...Class and Gender in School Work-Experience Programmes”: Scottish Council for Research in Education. Mirza, Heidi Safia; Davidson, Julia; Powney, Janet; Wilson, Valerie; Hall, Stuart (2005) “Race and sex: teachers ' views on who gets ahead in schools”: European Journal of Teacher Education Vol. 28, No. 3: Routledge >http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/2846/01/Hall22educcontent%255B1%255D.pdf< Nash, Robin (1972) “Keeping In With Teacher”. National Literacy Trust (2004) “The structure of the literacy hour”: >http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/Database/Primary/lithour.html#structure< Norman, Fiona; Turner, Sue; Granados-Johnson, Jackie; Schwarcz, Helen; Green, Helen and Harris, Jill (1988) “Look, Jane, Look” in Woodhead, Martin and McGrath, Andrea (eds) “Family, School and Society”: OUP. Padfield, Pauline (1997) “’Skivers ', 'saddos ' and 'swots ': pupils ' perceptions of the process of labelling those 'in trouble ' at school”: Scottish Educational Research Association Annual Conference paper. Parsons, Talcott (1959) “The School Class as a Social System”: Harvard Educational Review Pateman, Trevor (1991) “Education and Social Theory” in Outhwaite, William and Bottomore, Tom (eds) “The Blackwell Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Social Thought”: Blackwell Provenzo, Eugene (2002) “Teaching, Learning, ad Schooling: A 21st Century Perspective”: Allyn and Bacon. Reay, Diane (2001) “Spice Girls’, ‘Nice Girls’, ‘Girlies’, and ‘Tomboys’: discourses, girls’ cultures and femininities in the primary classroom”: Gender and Education, Vol. 13, No. 2. Roger, Angela and Duffield, Jill (2000) “Factors Underlying Persistent Gendered Option Choices in School Science and Technology in Scotland’”: Gender and Education Vol. 12, No. 3. Spender, Dale (1982) “Invisible Women”: Writers and Readers. Stanworth, Michelle (1981) “Gender and Schooling”: Hutchinson. Strinati, Dominic (1995) “An Introduction to Theories of Popular Culture”: Routledge Summerfield, Carol and Babb, Penny (eds) (2004): Social Trends 34, Office for National Statistics. Taylor, Mark (2004) “Generation NeXt Comes to College: Meeting the Postmodern Student”: Arkansas State University.>www.lib.wayne.edu/org/accreditation/examples/documents/generationnext.pdf< Taylor, Matthew and Smithers, Rebecca (2005) “New academy schools fuel education row”: The Guardian: 5th September >http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,1562665,00.html< Treneman, Anne (1998) “Will the boys who can’t read still end up as the men on top?”: The Independent, 5th January. Troyna, Barry and Hatcher, Richard (1992) “Racism in children 's lives: a study of mainly-white primary schools”: Routledge Ward, Lucy (2007) “Women bosses lose out as gender pay gap widens in the boardroom”: The Guardian, 8 th November. Warrington, Molly and Younger, Michael (2000) “The Other Side of the Gender Gap”: Gender and Education, Vol. 12, No. 4. Willis, Paul (1977) “Learning To Labour: How Working class kids get working class jobs”: Saxon House. Willis, Phil (2003)“Social class 'defines school achievement '”: The Guardian, 23rd April Wright, Cecile (1992)“Race Relations in the Primary School”: David Fulton Publishers. Woods, Peter (1976) “The myth of subject choice”: British Journal of Sociology, 27. Yang, Shen-Keng (2002) “Educational research for the dialectic process of globalization and localization”: European Conference on Educational Research paper. >www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00002276.htm< © www.sociology.org.uk 20
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Theories of Education Essay
  • Sociology Essay: Education
  • Sociology Theory Essay
  • Sociology Education eassay Essay
  • The Theory of Education Essay
  • Sociology Essay
  • Sociology Essay
  • sociology Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free