We have to understand the several concepts by means of definition and its integration. •
Tourism Hunziker and Krapf, in 1941, defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home The United Nations classified three forms of tourism in 1994, in its "Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism", which involves residents of the given country travelling only within this country; “Inbound tourism, involving non-residents travelling in the given country; and Outbound tourism, involving residents travelling in another country” •
Poverty is the shortage of common things such as food, clothing, shelter and safe drinking water, all of which determine the quality of life. It may also include the lack of access to opportunities such as education and employment which aid the escape from poverty and/or allow one to enjoy the respect of fellow citizens. According to Mollie Orshansky who developed the poverty measurements used by the U.S. government, "to be poor is to be deprived of those goods and services and pleasures which others around us take for granted.” Usually measured by people living on less than $1 a day
Poverty and tourism is integrated in the form of pro-poor tourism and can be summarised as an approach that seeks to utilize tourism as strategic tool to alleviate poverty among the marginalized communities. Any form of tourism can contribute to poverty reduction. For this to happen, specific ways need to be identified in which tourism businesses as well as tourists can directly and indirectly generate benefits for the poor. This is what Pro-Poor Tourism (PPT) is all about. PPT can be defined as tourism which provides net benefits for poor people. PPT is not a specific tourism product or sector. It is not the same as eco-tourism or community-based tourism, although these forms of tourism can be pro-poor; i.e. they can bring net benefits to the poor.
Discuss the forces in tourism that can alleviate poverty Tourism is a massive and growing industry already affecting millions of the poor, so a marginal improvement could generate substantial benefits. Also, tourism has advantages over other sectors in relation to poverty reduction. Tourism is a very diverse industry which increases the scope for wide participation (e.g. informal sector). In tourism, the customer comes to the product, offering opportunities to make additional sales (linkages). Tourism is more labour-intensive than many other sectors, such as manufacturing, and employs a higher proportion of women. Tourism products can be built on natural and cultural resources which are often some of the few assets that the poor have. Tourism may have potential in countries and areas which have little other competitive export.
Figure 1.1) The forces of tourism. Source: The competitive destination (2003) According to Ritchie and Grouch (2003:80) several forces affects tourism in various ways. Mention was made with relevance to the destination and the following forces can contribute to poverty alleviation.
Geographical – tourism are not bound by geographical areas in developed countries due to infrastructural completeness. Yet remote locations in third world countries could negatively influence the community by means of restricted access. This ‘unexplored’ community can be a destination by itself due to its...
Bibliography: • Jamieson, W., Goodwin, H., Edmunds, C., (2004) Contribution of tourism to poverty alleviation: pro poor tourism and the challenge of measuring impacts. Conference UN ESCAP.
• Karch, C.A., Dann, G.H.S., (1961) Close encounters of the third world. University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados.
• Rogerson, C.M., (2002) Pro-Poor Interventions for local economic development. Unpublished dissertation. University of the Witwatersrand: Johannesburg.
• Unknown Author (February 2007) City of Cape Town: Tourism Development Framework and situation analysis. [online]. Available from www.capetown.gov.za. [accessed 3 August 2009.]
• Unknown Author (October 2008) Cape Town Mayor voted as best in the world
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