Scholarly paper on HIV in women
Introduction Relevant nursing issue
Some of the questions that arise from women living with HIV are barrier to social services. It affects the livelihood of women; thus, they are unable to acquire some essential services. Another issue is that they have mental health problem; thus, they are placed at a higher risk for HIV infection. They also face stigmatization that is rooted in discrimination (Peninnah, 2013). Other issues that arise are limitation to children health care, misinformation regarding treatment options, lack of access to transportation, substance abuse in regard to treatment, and unstable housing. There are attempts that have been put to measure and understand one’s health status. The rules also incorporate the physical wellbeing, psychological status, and cognitive functioning (Deanna, 2013).
The tests are referred to as Health-related quality of life (HRQoL). It is a way of knowing how individuals feel about their health. It is done from an interactive and interpretive point of view. It enables an empathetic understanding of daily life experience is different life settings. HRQoL also enhances the identification of the different race, gender, class and social positioning. It also considers social cultural and political forces. It has been knotted that, PLHIV have a lower physical and mental HRQoL score. It has also been knotted that women are mostly affected when compared to the male counterparts (Peninnah, 2013). Literature review
From the research that done previously, it has indicated that, HIV-related stigmatization may be connected with mental, psychological and emotional health. The stigma has been associated with despair, stress, loneliness, depression, anxiety, distress, low self-esteem and self-image, emotional health, and mental health. Lower levels of emotions. According to UNAIDS report, there are approximately 33 million people living with HIV/AIDS globally. The stigma that is related to HIV has persisted for over 25 years. The stigma has been the greatest barrier to this pandemic (Peninnah, 2013).
There are several stigmas that have been described to be related to HIV/AIDS. Some of the stigmas have been; internalized, symbolic, instrumental perceived, and enacted. Internalized stigma includes having negative beliefs and views towards HIV/AIDS and oneself. Symbolic stigma refers shaming and blaming of groups associated with HID/AIDS by others. Perceived stigma refers to people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIVs) awareness of reduced opportunity and negative social identity. Enacted stigma includes all the activities of discrimination toward PLHIV. It may include exclusion and violence. Instrumental stigma is whereby measures have been taken to protect oneself and one’s health (Deanna, 2013).
Reports from the survey have shown that, the primary cause of morbidity and mortality among African-American women is HIV/AIDS. The reason for the high prevalence is that they are exposed to risks of having partners like men having sex with fellow men and women. Poverty and low living standards also contribute to the prevalence since most of the victims cannot access to Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). They also lack proper health care, lack of adequate access to early medical attention and drug therapies, and the differential effects of HIV anti-retroviral therapy (Deanna, 2013). Paradigm / Methodology
The study used specific questionnaire to collect the required information regarding social, demographic profile, information regarding their sexuality, and clinical data. The clinical data included, time since diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, ARV used, HIV viral load, and the...
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