A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
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This article is about the former President of India. For the freedom fighter, see Abul Kalam Azad.
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
Abdul Kalam at the 12th Wharton India Economic Forum, 2008
| 11th President of India
25 July 2002 – 25 July 2007
| Atal Bihari Vajpayee
| Bhairon Singh Shekhawat
| K. R. Narayanan
| Pratibha Devisingh Patil
| 15 October 1931 (age 81)
Rameswaram, India (present day Tamil Nadu, India)
| St. Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli
Madras Institute of Technology
| Professor, Author, scientist
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (Tamil: [அவுல் பக்கீர் ஜைனுலாபுதீன் அப்துல் கலாம்] ( listen) born 15 October 1931) usually referred to as Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, is an Indian scientist and administrator who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. Kalam was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, studied physics at the St. Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli, and aerospace engineering at the Madras Institute of Technology (MIT), Chennai. Before his term as President, he worked as an aerospace engineer with Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).Kalam is popularly known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development ofballistic missile and launch vehicle technology. He played a pivotal organizational, technical and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974. Some scientific experts have however called Kalam a man with no authority over nuclear physics but who just carried on the works of Homi J. Bhabha andVikram Sarabhai. Kalam was elected the President of India in 2002, defeating Lakshmi Sahgal and was supported by both the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party, the major political parties of India. He is currently a visiting professor at Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad and Indian Institute of Management Indore, Chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram, a professor of Aerospace Engineering at Anna University (Chennai), JSS University (Mysore) and an adjunct/visiting faculty at many other academic and research institutions across India. Kalam advocated plans to develop India into a developed nation by 2020 in his book India 2020. Books authored by him have received considerable demands in South Korea for the translated versions. He has received several prestigious awards, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour. Kalam is known for his motivational speeches and interaction with the student community in India. He launched his mission for the youth of the nation in 2011 called the What Can I Give Movement with a central theme to defeatcorruption in India. Contents [hide] * 1 Early life and education * 2 Career as scientist * 3 Presidency * 4 Criticisms and controversies * 4.1 Personal attacks * 5 Future India: 2020 * 6 Popular culture * 7 Awards and honours * 8 Books and documentaries * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links
Early life and education
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 in a Muslim family to Jainulabdeen, a boat owner and Ashiamma, a housewife, atRameswaram, located in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. He came from a poor background and started working at an early age to supplement his family's income. After completing school, Kalam distributed newspapers in order to financially contribute to his father's income. In his school years, he had average grades, but was...
References: * India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium by A. P. J Abdul Kalam, Y. S. Rajan; New York, 1998.
* Wings of Fire: An Autobiography by A
* Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India by A. P. J. Abdul Kalam; Viking, 2002.
* The Luminous Sparks by A
* Mission India by A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, Paintings by Manav Gupta; Penguin Books, 2005
* Inspiring Thoughts by A
* You Are Born To Blossom: Take My Journey Beyond by A. P. J Abdul Kalam and Arun Tiwari; Ocean Books, 2011.
* Turning Points: A journey through challenges by A
* President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam by R. K. Pruthi; Anmol Publications, 2002.
* A Little Dream (documentary film) by P. Dhanapal; Minveli Media Works Private Limited, 2008.
* The Kalam Effect: My Years with the President by P.M
* My Days With Mahatma Abdul Kalam by Fr.A.K. George; Novel Corporation, 2009.
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