Role of Womens in Indian Politics

Topics: Betel, Areca nut, Areca catechu Pages: 13 (5156 words) Published: February 16, 2013
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the mixture of leaf and nut, see Paan. For the biblical place, see Bethel. The Betel (Piper betle) is the leaf of a vine belonging to the Piperaceae family, which includes pepper and kava. It is valued both as a mild stimulant[1] and for its medicinal properties. Betel leaf is mostly consumed in Asia, and elsewhere in the world by some Asian emigrants, as betel quid or paan, with or without tobacco, in an addictive psycho-stimulating and euphoria-inducing formulation with adverse health effects.[2] The betel plant is an evergreen and perennial creeper, with glossy heart-shaped leaves and white catkin. The betel plant originated from South and South East Asia (India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka). -------------------------------------------------

The betel leaf is cultivated in most of South and Southeast Asia. Since it is a creeper, it needs a compatible tree or a long pole for support. Betel requires high land and especially fertile soil. Waterlogged, saline and alkali soils are unsuitable for its cultivation. In Bangladesh, farmers called barui[3] prepare a garden called a barouj in which to grow betel. The barouj is fenced with bamboo sticks and coconut leaves. The soil is plowed into furrows of 10 to 15 metres' length, 75 centimetres in width and 75 centimetres' depth. Oil cakes, manure, and leaves are thoroughly incorporated with the topsoil of the furrows and wood ash. The creeper cuttings are planted at the beginning of the monsoon season. Proper shade and irrigation are essential for the successful cultivation of this crop. Betel needs constantly moist soil, but there should not be excessive moisture. Irrigation is frequent and light, and standing water should not remain for more than half an hour. Dried leaves and wood ash are applied to the furrows at fortnightly intervals and cow dung slurry is sprinkled. Application of different kinds of leaves at monthly intervals is believed advantageous for the growth of the betel. In 3 to 6 months the vines reach 150 to 180 centimeters in height and they will branch. Harvest begins, with the farmer plucking the leaf and itspetiole with his right thumb. The harvest lasts 15 days to one month. The harvested leaves are consumed locally or exported to other parts of Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the United States. Betel is an important part of the economy in rural Bangladesh. Varieties include 'Magadhi' from Bihar, Gundi, Rasi & Bada varieties from Hinjilicut, Orissa which is more popular in Benaras, Mirzapur, Tunda, Agra & southern districts of Orissa, in India, and 'Venmony Vettila' from Kerala. -------------------------------------------------

An extensive ca. 2004 research monograph by the World Health Organization,[2] reports that betel leaf is consumed, in southeast Asian community worldwide, predominantly as a betel quid (synonymous with pan or paan). The betel quid contains betel leaf, areca nut and slaked lime, and may contain tobacco. Other substances are often added to the betel quid, in particular spices, such as cardamom, saffron, cloves, aniseed, turmeric, mustard or sweeteners according to local preferences. Numerous commercially produced mixtures containing some or all of these ingredients are also available in various parts of the world. The betel quid is thus a mixture of substances, placed in the mouth; and betel leaf is not consumed alone. For a predominant majority, the paan usually contains the betel leaf with two basic ingredients, either tobacco or areca nut or both, in raw or any processed form. The betel quid, or paan, as consumed in various parts of the world, consists of,[2] : * betel leaf with areca nut and slaked lime

* betel leaf with areca nut, slaked lime and tobacco
* betel leaf with tobacco, but without any areca nut
* betel leaf with...
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