RUNNING HEADER: Teen Dating Violence
Risk Factors for Teen Dating Violence
Dating violence is defined by the United States Department of Justice as “the perpetration or threat of an act of violence by at least one member of an unmarried couple on the other member within the context of dating or courtship” (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, [CDC] 2009). It occurs in heterosexual and same-sex relationships. Dating violence crosses all economic, racial and social lines. Most victims are young women however men can be victims of violence as well. In dating violence, one partner tries to maintain power and control over the other through some kind of abuse. The violence can include physical harm, emotional or sexual abuse. Physical abuse consists of hitting, slapping, kicking, or pushing. Sexual abuse is forcing a person to have sexual intercourse. Emotional abuse is where threats, shouting, name calling, or other verbal abuses are used to intimidate or frighten the person. Psychological abuses such as isolation or jealousy are usually initiated first. Dating violence can also include harassment or intimidations by using texting, emailing, verbal abuse over social network websites and picture texting (Claiborne & TRU, 2005). In previous years, dating violence appeared to be a social issue that occurred among adults. However, recent statistics show a growing increase in numbers as it relates to dating violence among adolescents. It is reported that one in three teenagers has experienced violence in a dating relationship (Center for Disease Control, 2009). About one in three high school students have been involved in an abusive relationship. Forty percent of teenage girls between the ages 14 to 17 say they know someone their age that has been hit or beaten by a boyfriend. One in five of dating couples report some type of violence in their relationship. One of five college females will experience some form of dating violence. Dating violence can have a negative effect on health throughout life. The social, psycho-logical, and physical health repercussions are severe (Silverman, 2004). Teens who are victims are more likely to be depressed and do poorly in school. Some teen victims also may engage in unhealthy behaviors such as drugs and alcohol usage and they are more likely to have eating disorders and think about or attempt suicide. Another effect is increased risk for exposure to sexually transmitted diseases. Compared with non-abused girls, those who experienced both physical and sexual dating violence are three times more likely to have been tested for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV and more than twice as likely to report an STD diagnosis (Decker & Raj, 2005). While there is a substantial amount of research investigating the outcomes or the consequences of teen dating violence, there still remains a slight disparity in research conducted on the risk factors associated with teen dating violence. This paper will focus on risk factors that are associated with teen dating violence victims. een is at risk for teen dating violence? Literature Review
Dating violence research in the past has focused on adults. This research provided information on the rates of perpetration and validated that victimization exists. However, there continues to be a lack on research that examines the problem from a longitudinal perspective and the consideration of the dynamics of teen romantic relationships is lacking (Mulford & Giordano, 2008). The lack of research provides limited knowledge and information on how to address dating violence particularly among adolescents. The research also provided some knowledge of the risk factors that focused on exposure to violence, peer influences, demographic characteristics, drug/alcohol abuse and attitudes towards violence. This research has helped to identify some risk factors. There is relatively sparse research on risk factors such...
References: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (2009). Dating Violence. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/datviol.htm.
Claiborne, Liz and TRU. (2007). Tech Abuse in Teen Relationships Study. Retrieved from http://www.loveisnotabuse.com.
Decker M, Silverman J, Raj A. (2005). Dating Violence and Sexually Transmitted Disease/HIV Testing and Diagnosis among Adolescent Females. Pediatrics. 116: 272-276.
Howard, D. E., & Wang, M. Q. (2003a). Psychosocial factors associated with adolescent boys ' reports of dating violence. Adolescence, 38 (151), 519-533.
O’Keefe, M. (1997). Predictors of dating violence among high school students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12, 546-568.
O 'Keefe, M., & Treister, L. (1998). Victims of dating violence among high school students: Are the predictors different for males and females. Violence Against Women, 4 (2), 195-223.
Office on Violence Against Women. The Violence Against Women Act of 2000 (VAWA 2000), Summary. US Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/vawo/laws/vawa_summary2.html.
Mulford, C. & Giordano, P. (2008). Teen Dating Violence: A Closer Look at Adolescent Relationships. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdfiles1/nij/224089.pdf.
Silverman, JG. (2004). Dating Violence against Adolescent Girls and Associated Substance Use, Unhealthy Weight Control, Sexual Risk Behavior, Pregnancy, and Suicidality. Journal of American Medical Association, 286:572-579.
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