The first example we have of Masters of Rhetoric is in Scene 2 of Act 1.
King: But now, my cousin Hamlet, and my son-
Hamlet: A little more than kin, and less than kind.
King: How is it that the clouds still hang on you?
Hamlet: Not so, my lord, I am too much in the sun (I.ii.)
Hamlet and Claudius retort towards each other from their very first conversation in the play. Hamlet is trying to display his anger of Claudius’ marriage to Gertrude. Then Hamlet uses the word “sun” as a pun, in reference to Claudius calling him “son” three lines previously. In this and some other uses of Hamlet’s speech, he seems to trying to show his anger through a sassy use of words that display his bitterness. At times, Hamlet will take a word from someone else’s speech and dwell on it and do something with it as a challenge, and to apply an emphasis.
Queen: Why seems it so particular with thee?
Hamlet: Seems, madam? nay, it is, I know not “seems.” (I.ii.)
Hamlet challenges his mother’s speech, just as he challenged his uncle’s speech in the previous example. This is his way of showing his vexation without saying so outright.
Manipulation of another character through use of rhetoric is a common theme in this play, and in Act II Scene ii, Hamlet is extremely effective in controlling a conversation with Polonius:
Hamlet: (in reference to Ophelia) Let her not walk I’ th’ sun. Conception is a blessing,//but as your daughter may conceive, friend, look to’t.
Polonius: …What do you read my lord?
Hamlet: Words, words, words.
Polonius: What is the matter, my lord?
Hamlet: Between who?
Polonius: I mean, the matter that you read, my lord. (II.ii.)
Hamlet begins by speaking in a vulgar way of Polonius’ daughter, doubling “conception” as both understanding and birth. Hamlet then plays with Polonius by changing the obvious meaning of the word matter. I will show in a moment the manner in which Polonius is a windbag who makes attempts at being a master of Rhetoric, but in doing so becomes completely oblivious to the real rhetoric being used to mock him. Hamlet answers Polonius with a long description of the book he is reading, and only speaks of negative traits of an old man, mocking Polonius. The first hint of Polonius being a windbag comes in Act I Scene iv: “Marry, I will teach you: think yourself a baby//that you have ta’en theses tenders for true pay,//Which are not sterling. Tender yourself more dearly,//Or (not to crack the wind of the poor phrase,//Wringing it thus) you’ll tender me a fool.” (I.iv) Polonius even admits to being longwinded. The Queen even accuses him of being a blusterer after one of his speeches in Act II Scene ii, yet he replies with even more failed attempt at rhetoric.
Queen: More matter with less art.
Polonius: Madam, I swear I use no art at all.//That he’s mad, ‘tis true, ‘tis true ‘tis pity,//And pity ‘tis ‘tis true – a foolish figure,//But farewell it, for I will use no art.//Mad let us grant him then, and now remains//That we find out the cause of this effect,//Or rather say, the cause of this defect,//For this effect defective comes by cause://Thus it remains, and the remainder thus. (II.ii.)
We can tell that Hamlet (or Claudius) is a Master of Rhetoric, while Polonius is not in the way that the other parties involved react. When something is skillfully used as rhetoric, as Hamlet and Claudius show us, those who are listening are either swayed by what they say, or do not comprehend what they are saying, and made to look like ignorant fools. In Polonius’ case, no one is effected by his speech, other than being annoyed. Shakespeare effectively uses comedy in Hamlet through the lines of gravediggers. Their witty lines both appeal to the lower class that would have come to Shakespeare’s plays, as well as challenge the Great Chain of Being. The clown is able to avoid telling Hamlet that it is Ophelia’s grave by his superior use of words.
Hamlet: Whose grave’s this, sirrah?
Clown: Mine, sir.
Hamlet: I think it be thine, indeed; for thou liest in’t.
Clown: You lie out on’t, sir, and therefore it is not yours://for y part, I do not lie in’t, and yet it is mine
Hamlet: Though dost lie in’t, to be in’t and say it is thine://‘tis for the dead, not for the quick; therefore thou liest.
Clown: ‘Tis a quick lie, sir; ‘twill away gain, from me to you.
Hamlet: What man dost thou dig it for?
Clown: For no man, sir.
Hamlet: What woman, then?
Clown: For none, neither.
Hamlet: Who is to be buried in’t?
Clown: One that was a woman, sir, but, rest her soul,//she’s dead. (V.ii.)
At times Hamlet will latch onto a word and play games with it, using different meanings, or reusing it. As shown through this short conversation with his mother, he does this often to show his anger and bitterness, which eventually becomes his downfall and leads to his death.
Queen: Hamlet, thou hast thy father much offended.
Hamlet: Mother, you have my father much offended.
Queen: Come, come, you answer with an idle tongue.
Hamlet: Go, go, you question with a wicked tongue. (III.iv.)
Shakespeare was very apt when using rhetoric to develop characters, and used it to develop his plays in several ways, from showing character’s feelings as with Hamlet, to showing a character’s weakness as is with both Hamlet and Polonius, to exploiting the ignorance of an opposing character with the case of Hamlet and Gertrude, and the Gravedigger and Hamlet. All these uses of rhetoric greatly enable the audience to have an easier understanding of what is happening with a deeper grasp of characters and their motives.