Respiratory System

Topics: Respiratory system, Respiratory physiology, Blood Pages: 5 (2747 words) Published: October 30, 2014

Respiratory system
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See also: Respiratory tractRespiratory system

A complete, schematic view of the human respiratory system with their parts and functions. Details
Latinsystema respiratoriumIdentifiers
TAA06.0.00.000FMAFMA:7158Anatomical terminologyThe respiratory system (or ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism. The respiratory system is involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxidebetween an organism and the environment. In air-breathing vertebrates like human beings, respiration takes place in the respiratory organs called lungs. The passage of air into the lungs to supply the body with oxygen is known as inhalation, and the passage of air out of the lungs to expel carbon dioxide is known as exhalation; this process is collectively called breathing or ventilation. In humans and other mammals, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm. Molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide are passively exchanged, by diffusion, between the gaseous external environment and the blood. This exchange process occurs in the alveoli air sacs in the lungs.[1]In fish and many invertebrates, respiration takes place through the gills. Other animals, such as insects, have respiratory systems with very simple anatomical features, and in amphibians even the skin plays a vital role in gas exchange. Plants also have respiratory systems but the directionality of gas exchange can be opposite to that in animals. The respiratory system in plants also includes anatomical features such as holes on the undersides of leaves known as stomata.[2]Contents   [hide] 

1 Comparative anatomy and physiology1.1 Horses1.2 Elephants1.3 Birds1.4 Reptiles1.5 Amphibians1.6 Fish2 Anatomy in invertebrates2.1 Arthropods2.1.1 Insects2.2 Molluscs3 Physiology in mammals3.1 Ventilation3.1.1 Control3.1.2 Inhalation3.1.3 Exhalation3.2 Gas exchange3.3 Immune functions3.4 Metabolic and endocrine functions of the lungs3.4.1 Vocalization3.4.2 Temperature control3.4.3 Coughing and sneezing4 Development4.1 Humans and mammals5 Disease6 Plants7 References8 External linksComparative anatomy and physiology Horses

Main article: Respiratory system of the horseHorses are obligate nasal breathers which means that they are different from many other mammals because they do not have the option of breathing through their mouths and must take in oxygen through their noses. Elephants

The elephant is the only animal known to have no pleural space. Rather, the parietal and visceral pleura are both composed of dense connective tissue and joined to each other via loose connective tissue.[3] This lack of a pleural space, along with an unusually thick diaphragm, are thought to be evolutionary adaptations allowing the elephant to remain underwater for long periods of time while breathing through its trunk which emerges as a snorkel.[4]Birds Main article: Bird anatomy § Respiratory systemThe respiratory system of birds differs significantly from that found in mammals, containing unique anatomical features such as air sacs. The lungs of birds also do not have the capacity to inflate as birds lack a diaphragm and a pleural cavity. Gas exchange in birds occurs between air capillaries and blood capillaries, rather than in alveoli. Reptiles

X-ray video of a female American alligator while breathing. The anatomical structure of the lungs is less complex in reptiles than in mammals, with reptiles lacking the very extensive airway tree structure found in mammalian lungs. Gas exchange in reptiles still occurs in alveoli however, reptiles do not possess a diaphragm. Thus, breathing occurs via a change in the volume of the body cavity which is controlled by contraction of  HYPERLINK "" \o "Intercostal muscles" intercostal muscles in all...
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