1. Rationalization refers to the replacement of traditions, values and emotions as motivators for behaviour in society with rational, calculated ones. Further Explanation:
In its primary sense, rationality is a normative concept that philosophers have generally tried to characterize in such a way that, for any action, belief, or desire, if it is rational we ought to choose it. 2. Tradition and Rationality
Weber focused on ways people think about their world. Members of preindustrial societies are bound by tradition and people in industrial-capitalist societies are guided by rationality. More:
By tradition, weber meant values and beliefs passed from generation to generation. In other words, traditional people are guided by the past. They consider particular actions right and proper mostly because they have been accepted for so long. People in modern societies, however, favour rationality a way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task. SENTIMENTAL TIES T OTHE PAST HAVE NO PLACE IN A RATIONAL WORLDWIEW WHIL IN TRADITIONAL THEY VALUE MORE ON IT LIKE THE FAMILY TIES. IN A RATIONAL SOCIETY, TRADITIONAL BECOMES ONE KIND OF AN INFORMATION. Typically, modern people think and act on the basis of the present and the consequences in the future and their choices. They evaluate raltionshipsin terms of what they put into them and what they expect to receive in return. Weber went on to describe modern society as “disenchantment” (tackle by desiree) because scientific thinking has swept away most of people’s sentimental ties to the past. THE WILLINGNESS TO ADOPT THE LATEST TECHNOLOGY IS ONE STRONG INDICATOR OF HOW RATIONALIZED A SOCIETY IS. Why are some societies more eager than others to adopt new technology? Those with a more rational worldview might consider new computer or medical technology a breakthrough, but those with a very traditional culture might reject such devices as a threat to their way of life. The Tuareg nomads of northern Mali, described at the beginning of this chapter, shrug off the idea of using telephones: why would anyone in the desert want a cellphone? Similarly, in the united states, the Amish refuse to have telephones in their homes because it is not part of their traditional way of life. JUST LIKE AN EXAMPLE:
COUNTRIES WITH TRADITIONAL CULTURES CANNOT AFFORD, AND CHOOSE TO IGNORE, OR EVEN INTENTIONALLY RESIST NEW TECHNOLOGY THAT NATIONS WITH HIGHLY RATIONALIZED WAYS OF LIFE QUICKLY EMBRACE. PERSONAL COMPUTERS, CENTRAL TO TODAY’S HIGH TECHNOLOGY, ARE COMMONPLACE IN HIGH-INCOME COUNTRIES SUCH AS THE UNITED STATES. IN LOW-INCOME NATIONS, BY CONTRAST, THEY ARE UNKNOWN TO MOST PEOPLE. In weber’s view, the amount of technological innovation depends on how a society’s people understand their world. Many people throughout history have had the opportunity to adopt new technology, but only in the rational cultural climate of Western Europe did people exploit scientific discoveries to spark the Industrial Revolution. WHEN WE ALSO TALK ABOUT CAPITALISM, MARX AND WEBER HERE AGAIN IS IN DIFFERENT SIDES. Weber considered industrial capitalism highly rational because capitalists try to make money in any way they can. Marx however, thought capitalism irrational because it fails to meet the basic needs of most of the people. Why do some irrational societies and cultural trends survive? It's fairly obvious that irrational societies or cultures don't end up well (such as the middle east or north Korea) but why aren't they completely destroyed if reason is so important? My theory is that these societies and cultures have (at an incremental level) mooched and stolen, from generations past and present, the knowledge and ideas that allow them to survive the way they do (so without western technology and ideas north Korea would be a savage jungle). Tradition
Values and beliefs passed from generation to generation.
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