Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion
Motivation Theories and Concepts
-Motives are the needs, wants, interests, and desires that propel people in certain directions. -Motivation involves goal-directed behaviour
-Drive theories apply the concept of homeostasis to behaviour -Homeostasis is a state of physiological equilibrium or stability - A Drive is an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension. -An Incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour -According to expectancy-value models, one’s motivation to pursue a particular course of action will depend on two factors: 1) Expectancy about one’s chances of attaining the incentive 2) The value of the desired incentive.
-Evolutionary theories argues that natural selection favours behaviours that maximize reproductive success The Motivation of Hunger and Eating
-Hypothalamus is the part of the brain that controls hunger and the motivation to eat.
- Neuropeptide Y and serotonin are neurotransmitters
-Glucose is a simple sugar that is an important source of energy -Manipulations that decrease blood glucose level can increase hunger. Manipulations that increase glucose level can make people feel satiated. -According to Jean Mayer, hunger is regulated by the rise and fall of blood glucose levels. -Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas for cells to extract glucose from the blood. - Leptin activates receptors in the brain that inhibit the release of neuropeptide Y, which leads to activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, which inhibits eating. - Hunger is influenced by food availability and palatability -Hunger can be increased by the exposure to pictures, written descriptions, and video depictions of attractive food - Stress is sometimes dealt with by eating tasty foods because they expect the enjoyable treats to make them feel better. -Anorexia Nervosa- a disorder in which young women...
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