Starch is one of the most abundant substances in nature, a renewable and almost unlimited resource. Starch is produced from grain or root crops. It is mainly used as food, but is also readily converted chemically, physically and biologically into many useful products to date; starch is used to produce such diverse products as food, paper, textiles, adhesives, beverages; confectioning, pharmaceuticals, and building materials. Cassava starch has many remarkable characteristics, including high paste viscosity, high paste clarity, and high freeze- thaw stability, which are advantageous to many industries. Ethanol is generally produced by the fermentation of sugar, cellulose or converted starch and has along history. In Nigeria, local production of ethanol from maze, guinea corn, millet, cassava and cellulose is as old as the country itself. Apart from food and pharmaceutical uses, ethanol is finding itself alternative uses for biofuel in most of the developed world for the reasons: it is not poisonous, it does not cause air pollution or any environmental hazard, it does not contribute to the green house effect problem (CO2 addition to the atmosphere causing global warming), it has a higher octane rating than petrol as a fuel. That is, ethanol is an octane booster and anti-knocking agent, it is an excellent raw material for synthetic chemicals, ethanol provides jobs and economic development in rural areas, it reduces country’s dependence on petroleum and it is a source of non-oil revenue for any producing country, ethanol is capable of reducing the adverse, foreign trade balance.
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The section entails the production of cassava starch powder and ethanol in a multi-product cassava processing plant. The starch powder is to be produced by utilizing the following equipment: hydrocyclone, spray dryer, air cyclone and atomizer. The hydrocyclone will be used to concentrate the starch solution and other screened. The spray dryer will be used to dry the slurry after which the air cyclone is used to recover the starch particles from the air down stream of the spray dryer. However, the ethanol is produced through a fermentation (enzymatic) process. The tuber can be cut into chips, dried and hydrolyzed with enzymes to form ethanol which can be distilled. Resources are allocated to produce the two products by optimization. It is also economic analysis are carried out by assigning an appropriate rate of investment (ROI) to arrive at a breakeven point. It is expected to arrive at actual production capacity and evaluate overall profitability. 1.2
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The starching tuberous roots of cassava provide a valuable source of cheap calories for people in the developing world. There is need for much progress in the production of starch powder because of its uses in food and non-food industries. Dry starch powder, under different grades are useful in food industry, pharmaceutical industry and are used as human and industrial raw material. However, with the ever-increasing depletion of economically recoverable petroleum reserves, the product of ethanol from vegetative source like cassava as a partial or complete replacement for conventional fossil-based liquid fuels becomes more attractive. More than 90% of all the chemical materials manufactured in our society are derived from petroleum products. Oil by-products are converted to small organic materials. That functions as the basic building blocks for most chemicals. Obviously, there is a need to develop and improve an alternative energy sources that generate chemical building blocks that do not use petroleum based starting materials. The largest impediment that stands on the way of industrial ethanol production from biosynthetic process in industry is the difficulty in isolation and purification. The success of synthetic process using biosyntherized materials depends on the purity of the starting materials. Many...
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