what are the phases of the menstrual cycle?
1. menstrual phase: days 1-5 of cycle
2. proliferation/follicular phase: day 5 til ovulation
3. secretory/luteal phase:ovulation to 3 days before menstrual cycle 4. ischemic phase: approx. 3 days before and up to the onset of menstruation
what are some indications of ovulation?
rise in body temp
abundant cervical mucus, watery, clear and alkaline, stretchy egg white consistency ferrying of mucus seen under microscope
where does fertilization take place?
outer (third) ampulla of the fallopian tubes
how long does it take the zygote to get from the fallopian tubes to the uterus?
about 3-4 days
it takes 7-10 days to complete the process of implantation (nidation)
how long do eggs and sperm live?
eggs live about 24 hours
sperm live from 48-72 hours, approx 3 days
what are the stages of fetal development?
0-2 weeks are zygotes
3-8 weeks are embryos
9-38+ weeks are fetus
when is the developing baby at creates risk for teratogenous effects?
during the embryonic stage of growth
how long is a trimester?
1st trimester is from the first day of the last menstrual period up to13 weeks 2nd trimester from 14-26 weeks
3rd trimester from 27-40 weeks
what is Goodell's sign?
softening of the cervix
what is chadwick's sign?
bluing of the vagina
when can you determine the sex of the fetus?
at 12 weeks
what is the normal caloric increase per day for a pregnant woman?
only about 300 calories more per day is necessary
when does the mother feel the first fetal movements?
quickening/movement is usually felt around 20 weeks, may be as early as 16 weeks but first time mothers don't usually notice it as early
when can colostrum be expressed from the nipples?
as early as 16 weeks gestation...
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