Persuasion and bargaining strategy
suggest that each country has its own cultural style of persuasion. The literature suggests that there are three basic styles of persuasion: the factual inductive, the axiomatic-deductive and the affective-intuitive. The weight of each style varies by country. The factual-inductive style has persuasive appeals made to logic (e.g. typical in North American negotiations), the axiomaticdeductive style appeals to ideals (e.g. typical in the former USSR) and the affective-intuitive style focuses on emotional appeals (e.g. typical in Arab countries). Other studies have shown that persuasive tactics are consistent across countries, such as the use of aggressive tactics present in US negotiation behavior There are essentially two strategies to bargaining: representational and instrumental Representational: identification of problems, search for solutions and selection of the most appropriate course of action. Instrumental: affecting the other party’s behavior and attitudes (influence tactics such as persuasive promises, commitments, rewards, punishments) Negotiators from similar cultures use more representational bargaining strategies. Dissimilar negotiating parties tend to use instrumental bargaining strategies
Concession making and agreement
It appears that individuals from different cultures have different approaches to concession making. In many Asian cultures, participants discuss all issues prior to making any concessions; concessions are made when they believe they almost reach an agreement. In contrast US bargainers tend to make small concessions throughout the negotiation process which they expect their opponents to reciprocate The final stage of the negotiation involves reaching an agreement based on the performance of the parties involved. The agreement should foster the development of the relationship and be flexible to deal with expected or unexpected changes which can occur in the...
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