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Pathophysiology

By Buddy0214 Feb 14, 2013 1401 Words
HPRS 2301 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
CHAPTER 4 – Diseases and Conditions of the Endocrine System

Orderly Function of the Endocrine System
Two Systems Interaction-as one system starts, ends, or extends the activity of the other.
Nervous System-creates an immediate but short lived response,operating on the priciples of electricity through impulse conduction.
Endocrine System- has a slightly slower onset and a longer duration of action, and uses highly specific and powerful hormones to control its response.
Glands of the Endocrine System- these glands secrete unique and potent chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream.

ENDOCRINE DISEASES Results of dysfunction of or increase/decrease of secretion of hormone
Symptoms and signs- growth abnormalities, emotional disturbances or psychiatric problems; skin, hair, and nail changes; edema;hypertention or hypotention;arrhythmia;changes in urine ourput; muscle weakness and atrophy, menstrual irregularity or amenorrhea,impotence or changes in libido;sterility, sharp changes in energy changes. Master gland-pituitary gland regulates most of the other endocrine glands.(HYPOTHSALAMUS) Hypo (define) under

Hyper (define) over
Pituitary Gland Diseases
Hyperpituitarism
Define- a chronic and progressive disease, is caused by excessive production and secretion of pituitary hormones, for example, human growth hormone.
Gigantism
Define- describes an abnormal pattern and stature.
Symptoms and Signs- When the hypersecretion of GH occurs before puberty, the result is gigantism, a proportional overgrowth of all body tissue. A child experiences abnormal and accelerated growth, especially of the long bones, because epiphyseal closure has not begun. Typically an accelerated linear growth prompts an intial investigation in children. Sexual and mental developments are often retarded.

Acromegaly
Define-is a chronic metabolic condition of adults caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) by the pituitary gland.
Symptoms and Signs- When the hypersecretion of GH occurs after puberty, acromegaly occurs which is an over growth of the bones of the face, hands and feet. The patient by experience joint pain resulting from osteoarthritis and a host of other clinical features in the body stystems.

Hypopituitarism
Define-a condition caused by a deficiency or absence of any of the pitutary hormones, especially those produced by the anterior pituitary lobe.
Dwarfism
Define-is the abnormal underdevelopment of the body, or hypopitarism, occuring in the children.
Diabetes Insipidus
Define- is a disturbance of water metabolism resulting in extreme thirst and excessive secretion of dilute urine.
Symptoms and Signs-a deficiency in the release of vasopressin by the posterior pituitary glandm resulting in the excretion of copious amounts of colorless and dilute urine polyuria.

Thyroid Gland Diseases
Simple Goiter
Define- an enlargement of the thyroid gland usually evidenced by a swelling in the neck.
Symptoms and Signs-a hyperplasia of the thyroid gland, may be asymptomic in the early stages. The patient, usually female, maybe unaware of the condition until the anterior aspect of the neck enlarges with a conspicious swollen mass.

Etiology- simple or nontoxic goiter results from a shortage of iodine
Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis
Define- is a chronic disease of the immune system that attacks the thyroid gland.
Symptoms and Signs-the condition occurs in women eight times as often as men, is most common between 45 and 65 years of age, and is the leading cause of goiter and hypothyroidism. The clinical feature is the gradual and painless lumpy enlargement of the thyroid gland, which causes a feeling of pressure in the neck and difficulty swallowing. Pain can also include, sesitivity to cold, weight gain, fatigue and depression as well as mental apathy appear as the disease progresses. Hyperthyroidism

Graves’ Disease
Define- a condition of primary, hyperthyroidism, occurs when the entire throid gland hypertrophies, resulting in a diffuse goiter and an over production of thyroid hormones.
Symptoms and Signs-over production of thyroid hormone causes increased metablism and multisystem changes. The patient has rapid heartbeat and palpitations, nervousesness, excitebility, and insomnia, Despite excessive appetitite and food consumption, the patient looses weight. Perfuse perspiration and warm moist skin cause the person to be intolerant of hot weather.Other symptoms include weakness and nail changes. Hypothyroidism

Define- to the state in which thyroid hormone production is below normal.
Cretinism
Define-is a congential hypothyroidism development in infancy or early childhood.
Symptoms and Signs-cretinism is a congeital hypothyroid condition in which the thryroid gland is absent or thyroid hormone is not synthesized by the thyroid gland; this causes mental retardation in the infant or young child. Other physical characteristics include a short forehead, a broad nose, and small wide set eyes with puffy eyelids;a wide open mouth with a thick protruding tongue.

Myxedema
Define-severe acquired hypothroidism developing in older child or adult.
Symptoms and Signs-severe hypothyroidism with reduced levels of T4, has its onset in the older child or adults. Meatabolism is slowed and there is an onset of systematic conditions. The skin becomes dry and scaly, with little or no persperation, because the body develops. Thyroid Cancer

Define- a neoplasm of the thyroid gland, the term includes primary thyroid tumorsm thyroid lymphoma, and metatases from breast, colonm kidney, or skin cancers.
Symptoms and Signs- thyroid malignancies often do not cause symptoms until the disease include palpation of a hard, painless lump or nodule on the thyroid gland, vocal cord paralysis, obstructive systems, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Parathyroid Gland Disease

Hyperparathyroidism
Define-a condition caused by over activity of one or more of the four parathyroid glands and results in the overproduction of parathyroid hormone.
Symptoms and Signs-results in excessive reabsorption of calcium into the blood and extracellular fluid. Reduces the irritability of nerve and muscle tissue, and this causes patient to experience muscle weakness and atrophy, gastrointestinal pain, and nausea and vomiting.

Hypoparathyroidism
Define- condition in which the secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands is greatly reduced. Adrenal Gland Diseases
Cushing’s Syndrome
Define-a condition of chronic hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex, which results in execessive circulating cortisol levels.
Symptoms and Signs- they experience fatigue, muscular weaknessm weight gain, and changes in their body appearance. Fat deposits form in the scapular area and in the trunk, causing a protruding abdomen.Patient may also show evidence of glucose intolerance, osteporosis, and atherosclerosis.

Addison’s Disease
Define- partial or complete failure adrenocortical function
Symptoms and Signs-adrenal insufficency or hypoadrenalism, is gradually manifested as symptoms of fatigue, weakness, anorexia, agitation, confusion, weight lossm and gastrointestinal disturbances. Endocrine Dysfunction of Pancreas

Diabetes Mellitus
Define-chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism caused by inadequate production of insulin by the pancreas or faulty use of insulin by the cells.
Symptoms and Signs-a reduction in cells for use as energy and storage as glycogen. A reduction in insulin results in hyperglycemia and deprives cells of fuel. Cells begin to metabolize fats and proteins.

Two Primary Forms of Diabetes
Type I- "jueville unset" or "insulin dependent diabetes mellitus", has an early, abrupt onset, usually before age 30 years of age, with little or no insulin being secreted by the patient and can be difficult to control.

Type II- "adult onset" or "non insulin dependent" the most common form, had gradual onset in adults older than 30. This form, some pancreatic function remains, permitting control of symptoms by dietary management; in addition an oral hypoglycemic medication is often prescribed.

Warning Signs of Diabetic Coma/Symptoms and Signs/Intervention •slow onset
thirst
increased urination
nausea and vomitting
addominal pain
drowsiness
lethargy
flushed appearance
dry skin
fruity breath odor
heavy respirations
Intervention- Give insulin, fluids, and salt; If severe give intravenous fluids, insulin, and sodium bicarbonate Warning signs of Insulin Reaction/Symptoms and Signs/Intervention •rapid onset

hunger
trembling and paleness
feeling of faintless
cold sweat
headache
anxiety
rapid heartbeat
irritability
confusuion

intervention- if awake, give simple sugar, candy, orange juice, or soda; if unconscious, give intravenous dextrose or glucagon.

Gestational Diabetes
Define-type 3 diabetes mellitus, condition of damanged ability to process carbohydrate that has its onset during pregnancy.
Symptoms and Signs- is detected between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. The patient may exhibit the usual signs of diabetes mellitus;polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia.
Prognosis- the risk of C section delivery and neonatal complications, including large size and hypoglycemia is increased. 30-40% of women who have had GDM develop type 2 diabetes within 5-10 years of GDM. Hypoglycemia

Define-an abnormally low glucose level in the blood.
Symptoms and Signs-a deficency of glucose, in the blood, can be a serious condition. Sweating, nervousness, weakness, hungerm dizziness, trembling, headache, and palpitations.

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