There were two presidents in office during this era. William Howard Taft, the 27th president, was in office from 1909 to 1913.During Taft's term everyone compared him to Roosevelt, the previous president, and would always criticize his ways. People always talked smack about how he supported big business, although no one ever mentioned how he was the first president to protect federal lands on oil had been found. Also how he protected coal infested lands. Some people may say that he was a bad president because he kept the government from enforcing the 15th Amendment, which gives black people the right to vote. Then Woodrow Wilson, the 28th president, was in office from 1913 to 1921. With Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft dividing the Republican Party vote, Wilson was elected President as a Democrat in 1913. National women's suffrage was achieved under Wilson's presidency, but this success was offset by the Wilson administration's segregation of the federal government. He began the first effective draft in 1917, raised billions in war funding through Liberty Bonds, imposed an income tax, enacted the first federal drug prohibition, set up the War Industries Board, promoted labor union growth, supervised agriculture and food production through the Lever Act, took over control of the railroads, and suppressed anti-war movements. He went to Paris in 1919 to create the League of Nations and shape the Treaty of Versailles, with special attention on creating new nations out of defunct empires. Largely for his efforts to form the League, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919.
World War I, also known as the Great War, took place during this time period. It began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. More than 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war. It was sparked by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife, Sophie, are assassinated by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip while the couple were visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia. This was the immediate trigger to start war. On July 28, Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. Two opposing alliances were assembled, the Allies-Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and the Russian Empire and the Central Powers-Germany and Austria-Hungary. Russia began to mobilize troops to help Serbia; when Germany demanded that Russia stop mobilising troops they refused. Germany then declares war on Russia. France begins mobilising to help Russia. Germany then declares war on France and sends troops through Belgium to attack. Belgium stays neutral and United Kingdom has agreed to help Belgium. When Germany invades Belguim; United Kingdom declares war on Germany. Two days later Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia and Serbia declares war on Germany. The Battle of Tannenberg took place in August 1914 and was the first battle of World War I, between the Russian Empire and the German Empire.It was fought by the Russian First and Second Armies against the German Eighth Army between 23 August and 30 August 1914. On February 21 The Battle of Verdun took place. The Battle of Verdun was the longest battle of World War I and was one of the bloodiest. United States did not join the war until April 6, 1917. This is when they declared war on Germany. On Janaury 8, 1918 President Woodrow Wilson issues his Fourteen Points to peace. The "Fourteen Points" was a statement given by United States President Woodrow Wilson declaring that World War I was being fought for a moral cause and calling for postwar peace in Europe. On November 11, 1918 Germany signs the armistice at Compiegne, France. Fighting ends on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month (i.e. 11 a.m. on November 11). On June 29, 1919 June 28 - The Treaty of Versailles officially ends World War I.