# Panel Method

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Incompressible Potential Flow Analysis Using Panel Method

ShahNor Basri, Norzelawati Asmuin & Aznijar Ahmad Yazid
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Jabatan Kejuruteraan Aeroangkasa
Fakulti Kejuruteraan,
Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM SERDANG, Selangor D E, Malaysia. kaa@eng.upm.edu.my ABSTRACT

Incompressible potential flow problems are governed by Laplace¡¦s equation. In solving linear, inviscid, irrotational flow about a body moving at subsonic or supersonic speeds, panel methods can be used. Panel methods are numerical schemes for the solution of the problem. The tools at the panel-method user 's disposal are the representation of nearly arbitrary geometry using surface panels of source-doublet-vorticity distributions, and extremely versatile boundary condition capabilities that can frequently be used for creative modeling. Panel-method capabilities and limitations, basic concepts common to all panel-method codes and different choices that were made in the implementation of these concepts into working computer programs are discussed.

Keywords
Panel method (fluid dynamics), incompressible potential flow, application programs (computer), computational fluid dynamics.

INTRODUCTION

Incompressible inviscid flow is governed by Laplace¡¦s equation. An extremely general method to solve this equation is the panel method. The flow may be about a body of any shape or past any boundary. Almost any boundary conditions, not just due to the fluid flow, can be solved. For 2-dimensional problems, the profile is approximated by a many-sided inscribed polygons. For 3-dimensional cases, a flat quadrilateral elements are used instead. The name ¡§panel method¡¨ derived from these treatments of the body shape.

Proper design of an airfoil requires an accurate prediction of the pressure distribution. Initially, thin-airfoil theory is used to analyse or design airfoils. However, due to its deficiencies for multi-element airfoils, this theory is not much used

References: Anderson, Jr., John D., Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, 1991. Bertin, John J., Aerodynamics for Engineers, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall Int. Inc, New Jersey, 1998. Moran, J., An Introduction to Theoretical and Computational Aerodynamics, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1984. Katz, J and Plotkin, A., Low-Speed Aerodynamics; From Wing Theory to Panel Methods, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1991. Kermode, A.C., Mechanics of Flight, 10th ed., Longman Group Ltd., England, 1996. Kuethe, A. M. and Chow, C., Foundations of Aerodynamics; Bases of Aerodynamic Design, 4th ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1986.

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