Posted by : Ahsan Khan Monday, 23 April 2012
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES, EFFECTS AND MEASURES OF OVER-POPULATION IN PAKISTAN?
What is Population?
In human biology, the whole numbers of residents take up an area (such as a country or the world) and frequently being changed by increases (births and migrations) and losses (deaths and migrations).
What is Over Population?
The term “Over Population” or “Population Explosion” is used to express the idea of more population for fewer resources.
Population Situation in Pakistan:
According to the economic survey of Pakistan 2010-11, the total population of Pakistan is 177.1 million against the 173.5 million in last year. Population growth rate is 2.1 % and in the list of most populous countries, Pakistan is at 6th number.
CAUSES OF OVER POPULATION
Following are the main causes of over population in Pakistan:
ALLAH is RAZIQ
Muslims have a solid belief that God gives food to everyone even to an ant living in a stone. So, why they reduce the size of family? No or Less Opportunity Cost
71 % Women are not active in economic activities in Pakistan. Women have no any economic loss while having a childe. Opportunity cost for having a childe is very low or zero in Pakistan.
Low Per Capita Income
We know that per capita income derives by dividing national income on total population. Low per capita income shows population explosion. Per capita income in Pakistan is $ 1254.
Unemployment is also a symbol of over population. It is difficult to adjust the huge population in economic activities. Rate of unemployment is 5.6 % in Pakistan.
High Population Growth Rate
The birth rate is very high which shows that our country is over populated. Rapid growth rate of population is 2.1 % in Pakistan.
Need for More Earning Hands
A single person cannot sport his large family in developing countries like Pakistan. He thinks to have more children to be more earning hands.
An arrival of refugees from India and especially from Afghanistan is also resulting in more population.
Low Death Rate
Reduction in death rate is another cause of over population. Death rate in 1951 was 2.8 % while it is just 0.73 % in 2010-11.
Low Standard of Living
It is observed that in Pakistan people with low income have more children. It is difficult to support such large size family. It results in low living standard of the population.
Due to the warm climate, youth and maturity is attained at an early age. It also results in rapid population growth.
Absence of Family Planning
Effective family planning is not available in Pakistan. People are not familiar with the methods of family planning. They feel hesitation to consult a doctor.
Joint Family System
There is competition among the family member in accordance with the family size in joint family system. It is also a cause for rapid growth of children.
The marriages take place usually between 16 to 22 years of age in Pakistan. The duration for re-productivity is very lengthy.
Due to lack of education, people are not aware of with the economic problems caused by high birth rate. Literacy rate is 57.7 % in Pakistan.
Dependency ratio is very high in our county. Only 32.17 % population take part in economic activities and other 67.83 % depends upon them. It views as a pressure on land and population expulsion.
Polygamy is the condition or practice of having more than one wife at one time. The existence of polygamy also contributes to the increase in population.
Due to rural urban migration and lack of facilities in cities, there are many social problems. It results in increase in urban population. Higher rate of urbanization is an indicator of over population.
Low Saving & Investment
The rate of saving and investment of GDP are only 9.5% and 13.4% respectively in Pakistan. Rate of investment and employment is also very low due to low rate of savings. So these indicate that Pakistan is over populated.
People in Pakistan get poor diet, which affects the health and working capacity. It reduces the per capita income, which is a sign of population explosion.
Concept of Large Family
Large family size is considered as a source of power to influence people and to control the persons around them. People feel pride to have a large family.
Vicious Circle of Poverty
Very high population growth rate reduces the per capita income, saving, investment and productivity. A country is thus caught up in vicious circle of poverty. Vicious circle of poverty is also a symbol of over population.
Universality of Marriage
All men and women of marriageable age enter into wedlock. As such the birth rate is higher in Pakistan.
Absence of Other Activities
There is absence of recreational facilities and employment opportunities in Pakistan. Time passing and any other enjoyments in Pakistan are very costly. So, people have a more time to spend with their wives. EFFECTS OF OVER POPULATION
Low Per Capital Income
The population growth reduces per capita income of the people because national income is divided by a big size of population. Per capital income of Pakistan is $ 1254 during 2010-11.
Unemployment, Under-employment and Disguised-unemployment
It is impossible to provide jobs to such highly growing population in Pakistan. It results in unemployment, under-employment and disguised-unemployment. Rate of unemployment in Pakistan is 5.6%.
Low Growth of Agriculture Sector
Very fast growth rate of population is a pressure on land. It caused to use of agricultural products at domestic level, increase in the landless workers and shortage of food. Growth rate of agriculture sector is 1.2%.
Low Saving and Low Investment
The rapidly increasing population increases the expenditure of government. It reduces the saving and investment. Low level of saving & investment means economic backwardness. Domestic savings are 9.5% of GDP and total investment is 13.4% of GDP during 2010-11.
High Rate of Inflation
There is more demand for goods due to more population. More demand results in more prices and inflation in the country. Rate of inflation is 14.1 % in Pakistan.
There is not any effective system to control the pollution. Capitalists install industries with billion dollars of resources but do not install treatment plants of million rupees. The rapid growth of population creates pollution, unplanned colonies and environment problems.
Backward Social Infrastructure
Rapidly growing population creates economic and social problems such as housing, education, health, transport, water, power etc.
Vicious Circle of Poverty
Very high rate of population growth lowers the per capita income, which caused in low saving and low investment that result in low rate of capital formation. All this forms the vicious circle of poverty.
Low Living Standard
Rising population cannot be provided the basic facilities of life in developing countries like Pakistan. So, rising population means low living standard. About 21 % population is living below poverty line.
Adverse Balance of Payment
Over populated nation has to import various items to support a huge population. On the other hand their export decreases. Due to over population our balance of payment is unfavourable in case of Pakistan. At present value of deficit in balance of payment is $ 8.3 billion.
Reduction in Wage Rate
High growth rate of population is caused in more labour force and unemployment. There is absence of skill and training that leads to low wage rate.
12. Increase in Dependence Ratio
Rapid rise in population growth increases the dependency ratio of unemployed population to employed population. Labour force is 54.92 million of the population in Pakistan and remaining population is depending upon them.
MEASURES TO CONTROL OVER POPULATION
Following measures are suggested by the people and experts to check the rapidly raising population:
Control the Birth Rate
The high birth rate i. e., 2.1% should be discouraged to reduce the population size. Effective and successful family planning should be introduced.
Use of Medicines
More contraceptive medicines should be introduced to people. By using these medicines; people will control the birth rate.
Marriages should take place in late age to control the rapidly rising population. It will be helpful to control the over population.
Government should open the health clinics in all the regions of the country. These clinics will be useful for reducing the high birth rate.
High Literacy Rate
Government should provide the more educational facilities to the backward population. This will provide the true picture of the economy, resources and population growth rate. Literacy rate is 57.7% in Pakistan.
Only 29 % women take an active part in the economic activities in Pakistan. They live full time at home and have no opportunity cost to have a baby.
Government should introduce the family planning to the population to control the high growth rate of population.
Increase in Employment
More employment opportunities must be provided to the young, talented, trained and educated population. It will be helpful to decrease the fast birth rate.
Provision of Credit Facilities
Government should provide the easy credit facilities to population to adjust the existing population in economic activities. It will lead to reduce the population explosion.
Growth of Small Scale and Cottage Industries
Growth and development of small-scale and cottage industries is also necessary to reduce the pressure on land. It will provide more jobs to men and also to women. Conclusion:
High growth rate of population creates unfavorable effects on the economic development in the developing countries like Pakistan. High rate of population growth in Pakistan means poverty, illiteracy, low living standard, absence of prosperity and vicious circle of poverty.