MGMT 602: Exam 2 Study Guide
Personality and Ability
1) What determines our individual characteristics? In other words, is personality and ability determined by our genes, our environment, or some combination of both? a. What percentage of our personality is determined by our genes? 35 -49% b. What percentage of our ability is determined by our genes? 60% 2) What are the different taxonomies for classifying an individual’s personality? a. The Big Five - This taxonomy consists of five traits: Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Extraversion. It reliably measures personality traits and validly predicts many job outcomes. b. The Myers-Briggs Type Inventory – This taxonomy is one of the most popular. Unfortunately, it is not very reliable (take it once and you might be classified as an ESTJ, take it again and you might be classified as an ISFP). It also isn’t very valid. Why isn’t it valid? Well, for one, it isn’t reliable. (And remember, reliability is a precursor for validity). For another, it doesn’t really separate well from bad performers. This scale is not commonly used for selection or promotion purposes, but it is commonly used for teambuilding purposes…We both take the test, then we say, “Wow, look at me. I’m an ESTJ…I’m such an extraverted senser. What are you? An ISFJ? Oh that’s so cool. We are both senser and judgers. Let’s be good teammates now.” c. Holland’s RIASEC model (named after a dude, not the region of the Netherlands). This taxonomy is used to guide people into career fields…not much else. So, the main takeaway here is that on the question that asks, “Which taxonomy is best for making selection and promotion decisions?” Choose the Big Five.
3) The Big Five
a. What are the Big Five?
Conscientiousness: dependable, organized, methodical, reliable, persevering, ambitious, NOT careless, sloppy, inefficient, negligent, lazy and irresponsible Agreeableness: kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful, courteous, warm, not critical, not antagonistic, not callous, not selfish, not rude and cold Neuroticism: nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, jealous, unstable NOT calm, steady, relaxed, at ease, secure, contented Openness: curious, imaginative, creative, complex, refined, sophisticated, NOT uninquisitive, conventional, conforming, simple, inartistic, traditional Extraversion: talkative, sociable, passionate, bold, dominant NOT quiet, shy, inhibited, bashful, reserved, submissive
b. Which two traits predict task performance across nearly all jobs? Conscientious and neuroticism
c. In what types of jobs are the other three traits valid predict of task performance? Agreeableness=service jobs, extraversion=sales or leadership, openness= learning d. How does the strength of the situation impact the degree to which personality predicts task performance?
4) In class, we talked about personality testing. Each student completed a personality survey under (a) an honest condition and (b) a simulated job application condition. a. Was there evidence that faking was a problem?
b. What are different techniques for alleviating faking on personality tests? Proactive measures
Use forced-choice inventories where applicants have to decide between equally desirable options (e.g., which adjective best describes you: ambitious or helpful?) Use conditional reasoning tests (rather than ask about your personality, ask questions then infer your personality based on your responses) Warn applicants not to fake
Require applicants to elaborate on their responses
Measure response times
Include items designed to catch fakers
c. Were we able to eliminate faking?
5) In general, what is the best individual characteristic (out of our personality traits and abilities) for predicting task performance? a. What about if we are trying to predict an individual’s typical task performance? Motivation
b. What about if we are trying to predict an individual’s maximal...
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