Organizational culture refers to the staff in an organization has a system of sharing meaning that makes the organization unique and different from other organizations (Schein, 1985).Actually, the sharing of meaning system is an aggregation of characteristics valued by organization. These characteristics constitute the essence of organizational culture. Organizational culture focus on how employees perceive the characteristics of organizational culture instead of liking or receiving them, which makes it different between employee satisfaction.
According to Handy’s theory, there are four main types of organization culture – power culture, role culture, task culture and person culture. The power culture may be more appropriate to small enterprises or important industries and priority fields controlled by the government in China. The role culture and the task culture are more suitable for competitive firms as a result of seeking high efficiency. The person culture should exist in particular departments as a subculture. Organization culture represents a common perception the organization’s members hold. Based on this, individuals with different backgrounds or at different levels in the organization should describe its culture in similar terms (Ashkanasy, 2000). Large organizations usually have a dominant culture and numerous subcultures. The dominant culture expresses the core values a majority of members share and that give the organization its distinct personality. Subcultures tend to develop in large organizations to reflect common problems or experiences members face in the same department or location. For example, the IT department can have a subculture that includes the core values of the dominant culture plus additional values unique to members of that department.
Besides dominant culture and subcultures, there still is another method to divide cultures, which are strong and weak cultures. If most employees (responding to...
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