Topics: Obesity, Hypertension, Nutrition Pages: 3 (829 words) Published: February 10, 2014
Chapter 1
Background of the Study
Obesity is a major global epidemic and a burden to society and health systems. It is well known risk factor for a number of chronic medical conditions with high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to provide an estimate of the direct costs associated to outpatient and inpatient care of overweight and obesity related diseases in the perspective of the Brazilian Health System (SUS). Obesity poses a major public health challenge. Each year, obesity contributes to an estimated 112,000 preventable deaths. Obese adults are at increased risk for many serious health conditions, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes and its complications, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and respiratory problems, as well as endometrial, breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Children with a high body mass index (BMI), an indicator of excess body weight, are more likely than those with a normal BMI to have insulin resistance7 (which can lead to diabetes), high blood pressure, and unhealthy levels of fats and other lipids. Furthermore, obese children often become obese adults; some studies have found that even 2- to 5-year-olds with a high BMI are likely to become obese adults. Besides suffering from physical illnesses, obese adults and children also may experience social stigmatization and discrimination, as well as psychological problems. In recent decades, the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in the United States, tripling among children and doubling among adults. This epidemic increase is the result of specific changes in our environment and behaviors in susceptible people. High-calorie, good-tasting, and inexpensive foods have become widely available and are heavily advertised. Portion sizes have increased, and we are eating out more frequently. Our children drink more sugar-sweetened beverages than they did in the past, and they are drinking fewer...
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