The Nobel Prize is one of the most prestigious awards that a person can receive. The history of the Nobel Prize dates back to the 1901. Nobel, Alfred Bernhard is the founder of the Nobel Prize. Nobel, Alfred Bernhard was an inventor, chemist, engineer, writer, and a businessman. He had no children or wife to will his fortune, so he decides to establish an award to honor people for their achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Medicine, Literature and Peace. Later in 1969 the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences will be added. This paper will discuss the process in choosing a winner. I will also discuss about some of the recipients of the Noble prizes and where they receive them. I will also discuss some of the controversial persons as well. The Nobel Prize is a very prestigious award full of history, made to honor men and women for outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace.
Nobel, Alfred Bernhard is the founder of the Noble Prize. He was born on October 21, 1833, in Stockholm, Sweden. At the age of 4 his parents move to Russia and sent him to private tutors were he quickly master chemistry and became fluent in English, French, German, and Russian, and Swedish. At the age of 18, he spent a year in Paris studying chemistry. Then he moved back to Russia to work at his father's factory making military equipment for the Crimean War. After the war his father’s factory became bankrupt, this misfortune lead the family to move back to their home in Sweden. There Alfred soon began experimenting with explosives. In 1864, when Alfred was 29, his younger brother Emil and four others were killed in a large explosion in the family's Swedish factory. Intensely distressed by the incident, Nobel set out to improve a safer explosive. In 1867, he patented a mixture of nitroglycerin, what he named "Dynamite." In 1888, Alfred's brother Ludvig died while in France. A French newspaper mistakenly published Alfred's obituary instead of Ludvig. The paper condemned Alfred for his invention of dynamite. Provoked by the event and disappointed with how he felt he might be remembered, Nobel set aside a bulk of his estate to establish the Nobel Prizes to honor men and women for outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and for their work in peace. On December 10, 1896, in Sanremo, Italy Nobel passes away at age 63. After taxes and bequests to individuals, Nobel gave 31,225,000 Swedish kronor (equivalent to 250 million US dollars in 2008) to fund the prizes.
On November 27, 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will in Paris. When it was opened and read after his death, the will caused a lot of controversy both in Sweden and internationally, as Nobel had left much of his wealth for the establishment of a prize. His family opposed the establishment of the Nobel Prize, and the prize awarders he named refused to do what he had requested in his will. There was much debate about the legality of Nobel’s will since it wasn’t written by an attorney, he made it himself and had four witnesses sign. The awarders waited till they knew the outcome of the legitimacy of his Will. It took five years before the first Nobel Prize could be awarded in 1901.
In this will Nobel’s assign four different awarders institutes or Academy to choose qualified persons. The first was the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for Physics and Chemistry. The second is the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute for Physiology or Medicine. The third is the Swedish Academy for Literature. The last was a committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Parliament for the Nobel Peace Prize. Nobel’s biggest request for this award is that best candidates wins regardless of their race. “ It is my express wish that in awarding the prizes no consideration whatever shall be given to the nationality of the candidates, but that the most worthy shall receive...
Cited: Novelline, Robert. Squire 's Fundamentals of Radiology. Harvard University Press. 5th edition. 1997.
Schück, H. et al. Nobel. The Man and His Prizes Edited by the Nobel Foundation
"The Nobel Peace Prize 2009". Nobelprize.org. 7 Mar 2012 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes
Please join StudyMode to read the full document