Personality Profiling of Introverts and Extroverts
N Vijaya Lakshmi*
The present study was conducted on a sample size of 325 students who were pursuing MBA Program in a premier B-School in India. Cattell’s “16 Personality Factor (16PF) questionnaire” was used to study the differences in the personality factors of introverts and extroverts with respect to three global factor measures, viz., anxiety, tough poise and independence.The hypotheses formulated were that, introverts were more on high anxiety, show tender-minded emotionality and were more subdued as compared to extroverts. Logistic regression was carried out and the results supported the hypotheses. The implications of these findings are discussed for the benefit of career counselors and soft skills trainers.
Personality is a term which is most commonly used to describe an individual’s set of traits, some of which are in some way commonly related to others and some are unique to each individual. We describe people by using words like perfectionist, sincere, bold, etc., and call it as personality of the person. Gordon Allport, the pioneer in personality theory, defined personality as, “The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment.” Personality is not a single independent mechanism but closely related to other human cognitive and emotional systems. Personality is not just what we have but rather how we relate to the world around us. A number of different theoretical approaches on personality exist, such as psychodynamic approach, social learning approach and the humanistic approach. These various approaches to personality help in analyzing personality, as personality itself is a hypothetical construct which can never be directly observed but can only be inferred from behavior.
Personality encompasses the relatively enduring characteristics that differentiate people—those behaviors that make each one of us unique. When we mention about someone’s personality, we also think about what makes that person different from other people, perhaps even unique. This aspect of personality is called individual differences which is the central issue to some personality theorists. These individual differences make us act in a consistent and predictable manner both in different situations and * Senior Counselor, The Icfai Business School, Hyderabad, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
602008 The Icfai University Press. All Rights Icfai University Journal of Soft Skills, Vol. II, No. 3, 2008 ©
over extended periods of time. Individual differences are measured by using psychometric tests through which one can compare people or categorize people as introverts, extroverts, anxious, independent and so on.
The Swiss psychiatrist, Carl Jung, introduced the words—introvert and extrovert. He described an introvert as a person who withdraws into himself, particularly in times of emotional stress and conflict; he tends to be shy and prefers to work alone. The introvert may take to the speaking platform in support of some movement to which he is strongly committed, but even then he is impelled from within. The extrovert under stress seeks the company of others. He is likely to be very sociable. A British psychologist, Hans Eysenck, considers that there are two major dimensions of personality which account for different traits among persons we encounter, they are extroversion and introversion. Eysenck has described the traits of introverted person as being unsociable, reserved, pessimistic, anxious, moody, etc., whereas the traits of extrovert are sociable, optimistic, carefree, lively, etc. (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1963). The field of personality psychology stretches from a fairly simple empirical search for differences between people to a rather philosophical search for the meaning of life. For the past few decades, researchers are interested to explore the link...
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