Assignment Task. Please read the information you were provided with on your course when completing your assignment.
1. Using the table below, explain the key areas in current legislation which relate to the safeguarding of children (1.1)
Description of the area
Children’s Act 1989
The welfare of the children is paramount, it puts a responsibility on local authorities to protect children, it sets out the procedures to be followed when there are concerns. 2
Children’s Act 2004
Duty on anyone who works with children to work in an integrated way, duty to share information, early intervention. (Additional to the Act of 1989) 3
Data Protecting Act 1998
Personal data shall be processed fairly, obtained and used only for the purpose intended, adequate, relevant and not excessive, accurate and kept up to date, not be kept for longer than needed, keep information safe but share if you have a concern.
UNICEF’s mission is to advocate for the protection of children’s rights, to help meet their basic needs and t o expand their opportunities to reach their full potential.
The Convention on the Rights of the Child is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate the full range of human rights—civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. The Convention sets out these rights in 54 articles and two Optional Protocols. (Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989)
2. Evaluate the effectiveness of a range of activities that can be used to encourage children to protect themselves (1.2)
Evaluation of effectiveness
A place where children can post things they are worried about. This is a good way of children being able to express themselves without having to talk directly to an adult which they may find embarrassing or their shyness can stop them. 2
Story about strangers and dangers
This is an informative way to introduce the idea of the stranger danger for children and not everyone is nice, even if they look nice and vice versa. How to prevent and escape from the situation. The story captures children’s attention and the pictures reinforce the written message (other activities: printable work sheets and colouring pictures, quizzes, role plays, games, videos, stranger song (-to the tune of Brother John). We can use the story of Little Red Riding Hood which helps to explain that some people have bad intentions like the wolf in the story. We can tell that some bad people don't look evil on the outside because they can disguise themselves with lies and a friendly-looking appearance. We should encourage the children to trust their intuition and get out of a situation that feels wrong like when Little Red Riding Hood noticed how “Granma” looked strange and realized that the wolf dressed up, long before he tried to eat her.
Letting them talk
The children can express their views, identity, participate in decisions that affect them as appropriate to their age and ability, taking their wishes and feelings into account and it helps coming over their shyness. Like while making biscuit faces with a 4 year old, which is good for getting to know the procedure of baking and the related ingredients, the child can make one with a smile and one with a sad face, and can explain why did s/he choose it. We can find out whether something bad happened to her/him or not, as at this age they have the vocabulary to go into details as well.
Booklets about abuse
They get to know the exist and types of abuse (verbal, physical, emotional, sexual abuse etc.), learn what to do and realize the situation and that they have to tell to someone you trust about. We can start to talk about it from the age of 3-4, when the children are more able to assess the scenes, people. With shy, sensitive or young children we should rather build safety skills, discuss situations then facts of abuse. If lost or separated, they should ask a mom with kids for help. Only mom/dad and a doctor (with a parent) should touch their private areas (teach which are they), and they should tell mom/dad or another trusted adult right away if this happens.
3. Explain at least 3 different types of transitions that children can experience over the age range birth to 16 years. Analyse the impact of the transition on children at a particular stage of development. (2.1 and 2.2)
Impact of the Transition
A child’s teeth usually begin to come through at about the age of 6 months and are complete by his third birthday. During the period when the teeth are erupting, the gums are red and swollen. The baby will salivate and dribble more than usual and will chew objects. It may have trouble sleeping and be more irritable and clingy. Eating maybe painful. Medical treatment is not usually necessary. Chewing on a cool teething ring, never frozen, or firm textured foods such as carrot or pieces of apple can ease the pain. 2
Kids need to be prepared by involving them in the planning as much as possible or the searching for a new school, taking the child to visit the new house and explore the new neighbourhood, providing as much information as you can about the new home, city, and state (or country). This can make the change feel less like it's being forced on them. The carers should try to maintain a positive attitude about the moving (can greatly affect kids, who may be looking for reassurance) Children under the age of 6 are the easiest to move, as they have limited capacity to understand the situation. It is good holding off on getting rid of your child's old bedroom furniture, which may provide a sense of comfort in the new house. It might even be a good idea to arrange furniture in a similar way in the new bedroom; avoiding making other big changes during the move, like toilet training or advancing a toddler to a bed from a crib. Arranging for a toddler or pre-schooler to stay with a babysitter on moving day helps both the parents and the children to let it happen more calm. 3
Breastfeeding is the sole source of nutrition for the baby for about 6 months, when you add solid foods to your baby’s diet, continue breastfeeding until at least 12 months (continueable after 12 months if desired). Good to check about vitamin D and iron supplements during the first year. Babies need only a few spoonfuls as they begin solids. Best to give them first solids which are rich in iron (meats:protein, iron, zinc), because most breastfeeding babies’ iron stores begin to diminish at about six months. If no allergies are present, simply observe your baby for indications that she is interested in trying new foods and then start to introduce them gradually, one by one and wait several days before you add another new food, to make sure your child does not have a negative reaction. Signs of interest: sitting up with minimal support, showing good head control, trying to grab food off the plate, or turning her head to refuse food when she is not hungry. Once got used to it, gradually expand the choices with applesauce, pears, peaches, bananas, or other mashed or strained fruit, and such vegetables as cooked carrots, peas, and sweet potatoes. Introduce only one new food at a time and
The number of breastfeedings will gradually decrease as her consumption of solid food increases. To ease breast discomfort, it may become necessary to express a small amount of milk manually.
4. Analyse the importance of play in supporting a child’s development. (AC 3.1)
Children are active learners and learn best through physical and mental challenges. The play should be feely chosen, but personally directed and intrinsically motivated. Play is crucial for a child’s social, emotional and physical growth. Through play children will learn key skills and qualities such as independence, creativity, curiosity and problem-solving. This area covers:
the physical development (coordination: running, kicking, throwing, catching, learning distance; gain confidence and stay healthy; learning through their senses), intellectual, linguistic, communication and language (literacy: access to a wide range of reading materials, role plays, mathematics: numbers, shapes, space and measure), expressive arts and design(creativity),
social and emotional growth (how to relate to each other, respect each other) and development of babies, children and young people.
4. For this task you need to identify 3 play activities for children of different ages. We want you to evaluate their effectiveness, identify the materials you need, why you have chosen the materials selected and any health and safety implications. (3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4)
Health and Safety
Birth to 3 years
Crawling, rolling, standing while singing to them or playing an instrument (until the age of 1-1,5)
Develop their coordination, language and literacy skills, exploring toys, equipment. Soft carpet, cushions, soft toys with shapes and colours, piano, xylophone, guitar Socket covers, stair gate, reasonably clean floor to avoid chocking 2
3 to 7 years
Arts and craft –
Recycle crafts - reusing materials (aged 5-7)
It helps expressing creativity, developing manual dexterity, concentration, developing their knowledge about the importance of recycling: what where to put (where to drop off old batteries, electronic devices) While talking to them we expand their vocabulary. Paintbrush, glue, paints, drawing board/paper, colouring pencils, old toilet rolls (for making a standing pen holder), egg cartoons, bottles (to prepare shakers using pasta), shoe boxes Apron to protect their clothes, wash hands afterwards, no sharp objects (no scissors) 3
7 to 12 years
Riding on a bike
Fresh air, nature, good exercise, keeping fit, exploring
Correct size of the bicycle, lights,
Safety helmet, hand, wrist and shin guards, reflective strips on their coat, keeping an eye on the traffic lights, safe place e.g. park
5. Why is it important that you consider the health and safety implications for both the play activity and the materials used? (3.4)
Protect and prevent our children from injuries, chocking, infections, suffocation or death.
The play areas can be dangerous if we do not pay enough attention. Adult supervision is important.
While playing in the water children can drown, in this case we need to take them immediately out of the water, clean the airways and put them in the recovery position if they are unresponsive, while calling for help. NEVER leave the child alone in or near a bathtub, pail of water, wading or swimming pool, or any other water, even for a moment. Knowing how to swim does not mean the child is safe near or in water. Stay within an arm’s length of the child around water. The kitchen can be a risky place, during baking: hot liquids, grease and hot foods spilled could cause serious burns on the child. We have to make sure the children cannot reach sharp knives. Glass can break, we rather use plastic cups, cutlery, plates etc. In a messy play we need to keep an eye on the chemicals we use and on using special (not sharp) scissors for children. Our home should be equipped with gates where they are needed (on stairways) and to prevent serious falls, we should lock the doors to any dangerous areas (e.g. room with an opened window). While playing outside we need to check the fruits and plants we find as some of them can be poisonous. We should teach infants/toddlers not to put anything in their mouth. To avoid infections (e.g. on a farm) hand washing is mandatory even before eating or after using the toilet. Toys should be large/long enough for infants and toddlers as small parts (e.g. which fit in a toilet paper roll) can be swallowed or lodged in the windpipe. It is necessary to avoid of using marbles, coins and small balls. Battery-operated toys should have secure battery cases with screws so children cannot open them even by accident. Uninflated or broken balloons can be choking hazards.
We should check the toys regularly to make sure that they aren't broken or unusable. Throw away broken toys or repair them right away.
6. Explain a range of communication skills required when working with children, young people, parents and carers. (4.1)
Regarding the parents first of all is important to have a discussion about the contract, before signing it. Then as a nanny we need to find the way, the time and the occasion to communicate with the parents about what is expected from all of us, what happened while looking after the children, whether there are some special needs of our side, so that we can support their children the best and develop a trusting relationship. It can be during meals or a scheduled meeting, when parents are home, or via mails, sms, phone calls, boards on the wall when they are not home and we will not meet (choosing the right time). Relevant communication should happen in writing. As it must be a two way communication we need to demonstrate active listening skills and make the parents feel valued through respecting their wishes. The communication must be clear (verbal and non-verbal, too), we rather repeat what has been said (checking for understanding), to make is sure, it came across how we want to do something. With the children we have to use a simpler and clear language and ensure we are understood. We need to recognise their needs and abilities and adapt the style of communication. We should encourage them to express theirselves, their emotions by giving them the language (verbal, non-verbal body language, tone). We need to listen to them in a calm and non-judgemental way and avoid fillers such as “um, er, like, you know” that reveal our uncertainty. While paying attention to all these we build warm, trusting relationships which support children’s learning more effectively than any amount of material resources.
There can be barriers to communication between the child and us: 1. Language barrier – the child does not speak our language: using gestures alongside your speech, use bilingual books, word games, talk slowly, writing down, teaching them and may we learn some of their language to make it easier at the beginning. When children make a language error, repeat what they have said, but in a corrected form without drawing attention to the error. For example, a child may say ‘I rided my bike in the park’, and the adult would respond ‘oh, you rode your bike in the park’. This is an example of modelling the correct form rather than just correcting the word, so that the child can understand the whole context. The daily rituals and routines and related language are an important source of language for bilingual children. Songs and rhymes, with plenty of repetition, are often learnt quickly and are a good source of language. Position yourself face to face as you play and talk with them. Keep your language simple. Avoid long or complicated sentences when talking to the child.
2. Hearing problems: makaton, pictures, sing language, adjust your communications, partial hearing, phonetics 3. Sight problems: touch, verbal, braille
Children learn to communicate in many ways, not just by talking, but also in non-verbal ways such as gestures, facial expressions and gaze direction, in drawing, writing and singing, and through dance, music and drama.
7. When communicating with children you need to ensure that your communication is suitable for their stage of development. How can you do this? Please give examples in your answer. (4.2)
We have to use a clear and simple language asking positive and open-ended questions, use paraphrase to check what I have heard: word games. Use body and visual language pictures, gestures, sing language. Role plays, e.g. before we visit a doctor.
Social play with babies: smile, laugh, look, games such peek-a-boo or itsy-bitsy spider, talk, sing For sight impaired children: touch, Braille.
Hearing problems are commonly related to delayed speech which is why a child's hearing should be tested by an audiologist whenever there's a speech concern. A child who has trouble hearing may have trouble articulating as well as understanding, imitating and using language. For hearing impaired children we can use the sign and symbol language - makaton, pictures, sign language, partial hearing, phonetics. Language barrier between the child and us for example a child aged 4 years that speaks very little English: In this case is a good idea to talk slowly (position yourself face to face as you play and talk with them, that they can read your mouth), use bilingual books so that they can follow the story and do not feel left out, playing role-play to let them use the language in a friendly environment, writing down (when they can already read), use body language, teaching them and may we learn some of their language to make it easier at the beginning. Simple songs, rhymes and refrains with plenty of repetition are learnt quickly and the vehicle for children’s first attempts to articulate an additional language. Social experiences would create a natural environment for children to develop language skills as well as the daily rituals and routines are an important source of language for young bilingual children. All attempts to speak should be encouraged and praised.
When children make a language error repeat what they have said, but in a corrected form without drawing attention to the error. We model language in a positive not punitive manner that facilitates communication.
8. During your training you explored different communication methods. Select some of these methods and evaluate their effectiveness. (4.3)
Providing a clear, fileable statement that is likely to reach its intended recipient Slow, typing mistakes, might be the recipient cannot read, it is not resolved immediately 2
2-way communication, fast, it is suitable for discussing matters and to reach a quick agreement Interruptions, misunderstandings, language and hearing problems, we cannot see each others’ gestures 3
Save time, quick, cheap
Virus, it is suitable for simple matters, that the recipient can deal with 4
Face-to-face communication e.g. meeting
Much personal, we have eye contact, less misunderstanding, it makes more detailed discussions to clarify issues Language, wrong postures, aggressive gestures, culture/background, age, wrong time 5
Answering machines and voicemail
We can switch them on when we are on a meeting
Impersonal. There is no 2-way communication, slow information sharing and response
9. Explain the main functions of a multi agency team. (5.1)
The most important aspect is giving the basic rights for the children such as keep them safe and healthy mentally and physically men (eating healthy, keep them clean, stimulate them, making positive contribution, good clothing, economic well-being), give and show them love and care, listening to the children. Through the multi agency working is provided an integrated support to children and their families by bringing together practitioners from different sectors and professions providing. (CWDC – Children’s Workforce Development Council) An early intervention can prevent more serious consequences. That is why is important to share information with other practitioners when such a problem comes up.
10. What are the benefits of a multi agency team? (5.2)
Easier or quicker access to services or expertise services by providing the quick connection: Universal services: anybody can access, school, childcare, children’s centres, school nurse, GP, health visitor, clubs, midwife Targeted services: social services, psychologist, speech therapist, family support workers, parenting classes, specialist health visitor, voluntary sector e.g. charity, single parents. Improved achievement in education and better engagement in education by identifying the problems, special needs on time and so helping to develop the children at their level of development. Tailored support by observing the children, the children’s needs through the people who work with them the most. Early identification and intervention serves as a step towards providing help on time. Better support for parents by advising them, helping them to search for the solution to a problem. Children’s needs addressed more appropriately, to the persons in charge as the team knows who to refer to. Better quality services.
Reduced need for more specialist services if the problem can be solved on a lower level as well. Types of activities:
1. Core group meeting (social-services) – the child is at a risk of harm, this is the crisis point 2. CAF
3. Leader practitioner
The CAF provides a more effective way of identifying children’s additional needs earlier, and will improve partnership between agencies. Meant to be voluntary to identify a child’s or a young person’s additional needs which are not being met. It helps to understand needs and strengths of the child in the way of a quicker assessment. The main aspects of the framework are the child’s safeguarding and promoting welfare by: Parenting capacity (basic care, ensuring safety, emotional warmth, stimulation etc.) Family and environmental factors (wider family, housing, social integration etc.) Child’s developmental needs (health, education, social relationships, self-care skills etc.) To achieve this it requires a person who takes the responsibility for the case, a lead professional. The main aims are the acting as a single point of contact, the coordinating of the actions agreed, and reducing overlap and inconsistency in the services.
11. Why do you, as a nanny, need to be aware of multi agency working and team working? (5.3)
There can be a case when we get involved and we need To know how to make queries if you had concerns about a child/family and what to do in these cases, e.g. drug addiction, behavioural disorder as we are responsible for the welfare of the child all times. Understand how you might need to contribute to the MAT process. Involving appropriate services or raising concerns when a child or young person is at risk of harm or of not achieving their potential. Understand the procedures, objectives, roles and relationships of partner services. Early identification by ourselves and other agencies is needed. Supporting parents during the process is also important, and that they support us as well.
12. As a nanny you may need to be working with a range of other professionals. How would working in this way ensure the needs of the child are met? (5.4)
Other professionals by working together, for example with a speech therapist:
They wish to see the child in an environment outside the clinic to assess the child’s communication skills in a more natural context. They wish to speak to you about your knowledge of the child and their strengths and difficulties, and to ask you about what you already know helps to support this child. They will also be aware that as you have a familiar relationship with the child, you are likely to be a key component in any intervention programme (regular contact, professional skills). The environment you provide has potential to support the communication development of all children, including those who experience difficulties. Your setting provides the kind of stimulation and social experiences that motivate children to communicate. The speech therapist may not work directly with the child during their visit. In some instances they will hope to observe the interaction without the child being aware that they are being watched. For this reason it is best not to introduce them to the child at the start of the visit or to try to prepare the child for the therapist coming to see them. It would be helpful to prepare the child’s developmental records.
13. Using the table below analyse which professionals you would need to be involved with and their role.
Children and families social workers
Social, family and community support. Social workers are the agency we call when we are concerned about a child’s welfare. They will take a referral and complete an initial assessment to establish the family’s needs. The can support parents to link in with other services or they can start procedures to remove children from their home or for them to be put on the child protection register. Social Workers also work in fostering and adoption. 2
In addition to providing education and parenting classes the teacher can support us with information about the child’s behaviour in the school (inside the class and outside in the garden), about its friends (as they may affect its behaviour), help with the observation, and keeping an eye on the child. The teacher also can help us to connect us with other professionals depending on the sort of problem. 3
When we are concerned about the children’s mental or physical health (we could contact a nurse as well, who may refer us to the GP) Duties can be carrying out medical examinations when requested, taking appropriate steps when they identify possible adult protection cases, providing relevant information from healthcare records to a council officer who is carrying out certain functions, documentation of the patient's healthcare records. The GP may refer the child to other particular professionals. 4
Multi-agency public protection teams
Multi agency public protection arrangements (MAPPA), are a framework of statutory arrangements operated by criminal justice and social care agencies that seek to manage and reduce the risk presented by sexual and violent offenders in order that re-offending is reduced and the public are protected.(There is a statutory duty on the Police, Probation and the Prison Service) 5
In case of committing a crime/offence/steal, abuse.
The Police are a vital resource in maintaining safety. They coordinate a multi faceted approach to help secure both of yours and your children’s safety. Resources used
Common core skills and knowledge booklet
Documents sent via dropbox
Your baby care bible, Dr A.J.R. Waterston p. 200-201
http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/topic/2038E757D68E49D5DC8C3CD0061E8E1B/pdf/fs3_en2009.pdf - Types of abuse and neglect http://www.adsa.dshs.wa.gov/APS/abusetypes.htm - Types and signs of abuse http://www.surreypb.org.uk/news/Safeguarding%20adults%20easyread%20booklet%20-for%20web%20opt.pdf – Stop abuse now http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/talk/move.html# - House moving http://www.unicef.org/crc/ - UNICEF- Convention on the Rights of the Child http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2012/07/7344/5 - GP rules http://www.nfer.ac.uk/nfer/publications/css02/css02.pdf - Multi agency working http://www.nchealthyschools.org/docs/lessonplans/k/grade03.03.pdf -