Miranda v. Arizona
This case is one that changed the way the United States Police forces will work forever. Every human in the world has natural born rights. Even people who have been arrested have rights, ‘The rights of the accused’. These rights are the main point of this court case. ‘On the third of March in 1963, an eighteen year old girl, “Lois Ann Jameson” (Sonneborn 6), was leaving Paramount Theaters in downtown Phoenix’ (Sonneborn 7). Jameson would always take the bus home and have to walk a short distance to her home. On this night, she would be walking home and a car pulled up past her nearly hitting her. She continued walking not realizing that a man had gotten out and was running towards her. He grabbed her around the waist and covered her mouth, taking her back to his car. The assailant then tied her by her hands and feet and proceeded to drive into the desert. The man later stopped the car, got into the back seat, undressed Lois, and raped her. After that he then drove her back into her neighborhood and dropped her off a few houses down from her home. As she left he said, ‘Whether you tell your mother or not is none of my business, but pray for me,’ (Sonneborn 7). Lois ran to door banging and screaming, her sister answered the door and Lois tells her what has been done to her. Sarah, her sister, called the police and at 2:08 am an officer arrived. Lois described the assailant as the following, “He was a Mexican man about twenty-seven or twenty-eight with a slight build. He was unshaven and was wearing glasses, jeans, and a t-shirt,” (Sonneborn 8). The next day, the police had her look at a line up of five possible men. But, none of them were her attacker. A polygraph test was done on Lois to se if she was telling the truth, but it was inconclusive. After she had been raped, Lois was terrified to walk home alone again. So her brother-in-law said he would walk her home every night. On March 9th, a week later, he was waiting for her at the bus stop and saw a car that resembled the description of the car she had given to the police. He went to get a closer look at the vehicle and saw that there were a number of similarities. After Lois had gotten off the bus, he took her to see if it indeed was the car that the assailant drove her in. But as they got nearer, the car started and sped away. Her brother was able to copy the license plate and gave it to the police. The search came up with the name Twila N. Hoffman as the owner. Officer Cooley, the lead Detective, with Detective Young, went to investigate further. The two detectives went to the address and discovered from the neighbors that she, with her boyfriend Ernesto Miranda, had moved. The officers looked into Miranda’s background and saw he had been in trouble with the law before. He had been convicted of several serious crimes including attempted rape and robbery. Using the postal system, the officers were able to find the new address of the Miranda and Hoffman. When the officers got to the address, they saw the old green Packard and knew they had found who they were looking for. The officers told Miranda they needed him to come with them to the police station. Miranda did not know he had a choice on going or not. Later at the station, Miranda was placed in a line up with three other possible suspects. Miranda was the only one wearing glasses, as in the description given to the police a week earlier. Jameson was then told to look at the men and see if one was the man who attacked her. She couldn’t make a positive identification on one of them, but she did say that Miranda’s features resembled that of her attacker. After that Miranda was taken back into the interrogation room for further questioning. Miranda asked, “How did I do?”(Sonneborn 13). He was not sure if he had been chosen. “One of the officers replied, ‘You flunked,’ even though Jameson had not made a positive identification, (Sonneborn 13). Miranda was unaware that he was not...
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