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Midterm Mock Exam

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Midterm Mock Exam
1. What is aetiology?
a) the study of physical features to determine criminal activity
b) how crime is caused
c) the study of policing
d) psychology of crime

2. What are the four stages of police cynicism?
a) enjoyment, distrust, hostility, acceptance
b) loyalty, questioning, realization, cynicism
c) pseudo-cynicism, romantic cynicism, aggressive cynicism, resigned cynicism
d) John Wayne cynicism, hero cynicism, uniformic cynicism, superior cynicism

3. Which of the following is NOT an area where police use special discretion?
a) Mental Illness
b) Young offenders
c) Domestic violence
d) Drug offences

4. A profile is constructed by:
a) who + what = how
b) what + why = who
c) area + victims = offender
d) Morgan + Reid = finding the unsub

5. hkhksdhfs profiling is profiling the offender’s background characteristics based on crime scene evidence while hdafhlaksd profiling is profiling the offender’s background characteristics based on similar crimes committed by other (known) offenders.
a) Deductive, Inductive
b) Organized, disorganized
c) Geographic, experience
d) Theoretical, ambiguous

6. In a polygraph test what would qualify as a control question?
a) Did you murder Sandra Dee?
b) Have you ever aimed to hurt someone with your actions in high school?
c) Do you like cookies?
d) What is 4 x 4?

7. The case of R v. Sophonow demonstrated the issue with:
a) planting evidence
b) eyewitness inaccuracies
c) police corruption
d) gang violence
8. When a judge determines whether the cause of an action was internal or external it is the:
a) Focal concerns theory
b) Attribution theory
c) Disparity theory
d) Influence theory

9. What are some factors that are inappropriate in determining a sentence?
a) gender
b) race
c) social class
d) all of the above

10. What are the two phases in a capital court case?
a) Guilt phase and penalty phase
b) Trial phase and sentencing phase
c) Incarceration phase and final phase
d) Aggravating phase and mitigating phase

11. General deterrence is the idea that…
a) it will stop the offender from committing more crimes
b) it gives the police more power
c) it will prevent other people from doing crime
d) it allows people to better understand the law

12. Which of the following are some of the elements associated with Battered Women Syndrome?
a) learned helplessness
b) hypervigilance
c) seeking aid
d) a and b
e) b and c

13. The two phases in Rape Trauma Syndrome are:
a) Acute Crisis Phase and Long Term Reactions
b) Immediate Stage and Post Trauma Stage
c) Denial Phase and Phobia Phase
d) Rape phase and Long Term Phase

14. Victim treatment has changed by:
a) having more services for victims
b) allowing victim impact statements
c) special witness conditions when testifying in court
d) all of the above

15. The definition of unfit to stand trial is:
a) the defendant is unable to participate in their defence on the account of mental disorder
b) when the defendant is lacking mens rea
c) when the trial takes too long and is then stayed
d) when a person is unable to stand trial because they are too young

16. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
a) You cannot be NCRMD and still be fit to stand trial
b) McNaughton was the judge who rules on Canada’s first NCRMD trial
c) You can be NCRMD and still fit to stand trial
d) NCRMD and Unfit to stand trial are not used in Canada

17. Which of the following are FALSE about the NCRMD defence?
a) The defense of NCRMD is used frequently
b) The NCRMD is usually successful when it is brought up
c) The NCRMD defence is a loophole
d) The offenders who are released using this defence are more likely to re-offend, especially with violent offences
e) All of the above

18. Sociological theories of crime deem the causes of crime to be…
a) external to the individual
b) internal to the individual
c) their families
d) other criminals

19. In Park, Burgess and Wirth’s Zone theory why is the center zone the most criminally active?
a) there are more criminals living in that area
b) the area is more socially disorganized which causes conflict
c) rich people have better security alarms
d) the industrial revolution made farmers the rich while everyone else had to commit crime

20. Which of the following theories are NOT included in the geography of crime?
a) Crime prevention through environmental design
b) Broken windows thesis
c) Theory of design disadvantagement
d) “Poor Neighbourhoods” theory

21. The routine activities theory states that crime results when three factors converge:
a) motivated offenders, suitable targets, and absence of capable guardians
b) Criminal people, lack of police, monetary value
c) Routine activities of an offender, routine activities of the law, routine activities of the victim
d) None of the above

22. Durkheim described anomie as:
a) the normal flow of society
b) normlessness in society caused by rapid social change
c) when mechanical solidarity fails
d) a phenomena of the 18th century

23. The theory of disjunction between social goals and the means to acquire them was founded by:
a) Merton
b) Durkheim
c) Marx
d) Weber

24. In Agnew’s General Strain Theory which of the following is an example of a disparity between aspirations and achievements?
a) their parents don’t provide for them
b) an athlete wins a medal but then it is removed since they were doping
c) a student wants and plans to ace their test but they fail
d) a kid has a bad group of friends who do drugs

25. Subcultural and opportunity theories investigate what?
a) A comprehensive analysis of criminality and how crime adapts
b) how societal norms affect criminality
c) how social labelling affects criminals
d) how skills and ideas are learned in society and those affect criminality

26. Willem Bonger compared altruism and egoism. Which societies fit in which scheme?
a) Altruism is pre- capitalist society and egoism is capitalist society
b) Altruism is Canada and egoism is the USA
c) Altruism is pre WWI and egoism is post WWI
d) Altruists were farmers and egoists were workmen

27. Instrumental Marxism describes… while structural Marxism describes …
a) The first thoughts of Marxism… more contemporary views on Marxism
b) The CJS as an instrument of the bourgeoisie to keep control of the proletariat…disparity between written law and law in action and how class influences it
c) Problems with government… problems with the law
d) Crime based on money… crime based on rebellion

28. This type of criminology sees punishment to perpetuate violence and argue for a change in social structure to help solve crime:
a) Alternative criminology
b) Restorative criminology
c) Societal responsibility model
d) Peacemaking Criminology

29. Sanctions are:
a) social reactions to behaviour that can include punishments or rewards
b) rules judges must follow
c) conditions an offender must follow when they are discharged
d) deviant activities commited by criminals

30. According to Functionalist views why do we need punishment?
a) to make the offender pay for what they did
b) for general and specific deterrence
c) maintain a collective conscience
d) to relieve victim’s pain

31. What is the leading cause of wrongful conviction?
a) DNA mistakes
b) False confessions
c) Unrepresentative juries
d) Mistaken eyewitness identification

32. Which of the following would be considered estimator variables on recall ability in a police investigation?
a) lighting
b) use of a weapon
c) how the lineup is shown
d) both a and b
e) none of the above

33. Which of the following line-up procedures has been shown to increase correct rejection rates when presented to witnesses?
a) simultaneous
b) sequential
c) showup
d) present

34. In jury selection a venire is … while a voir dire is …
a) the original group of potential jurors … selecting jurors from that pool for the final members
b) bringing specific members to the group… picking extra members to join
c) picking certain races to participate… picking specific people from those races
d) making a challenge for cause… making a peremptory challenge

35. What are ways that we can improve juror comprehension?
a) simplify instructions
b) allow jurors to take notes
c) provide instructions before and after the presentation of evidence
d) all of the above

36. James feels guilty all the time so he robs a store just to be punished. James has a …… super ego.
a) weak super ego
b) harsh super ego
c) deviant super ego
d) he is lacking a super ego

37. Which psychology of crime theorist proposed the social control theory where people refrain from crime because of a bond to conventionality and conformity?
a) Hirschi
b) Merton
c) Durkheim
d) Eyesenck

38. What did Bandura use to prove his Social Learning Theory?
a) Barbie dolls
b) Toy cars
c) Bobo doll
d) Video games

39. The three stages of Kohlberg’s Moral Development are:
a) pre- conventional, conventional, post- conventional
b) early development, mid development, late development
c) childhood conventional, adolescent conventional, adult conventional
d) inception stage, focus stage, final stage

40. Edwin Sutherland argued that crime come from:
a) differential association
b) social inequalities
c) goal inaccessibility
d) capitalist culture

41. Deontology is all about …
a) retribution
b) deterrence
c) rehabilitation
d) denunciation

42. What case laid out that the CJS should avoid incarcerating aboriginals until all other options had been considered?
a) R. v. Parks
b) R. v. Tourangeau
c) R. v. Gladue
d) R. v. Regina

43. The three categories of crime are…
a) summary conviction offences, indictable offences, hybrid offences
b) lesser offences, harsher offences, dual offences
c) capital offences, federal offence, felony offences
d) none of the above

44. This test is used to determine if legislation should be upheld despite the fact that infringes on a person’s charter rights:
a) Morgentaler Test
b) Oakes Test
c) Parks Test
d) Charter Test

45. R. v. Daviault demonstrated the use of which defence?
a) compulsion
b) automatism
c) intoxication
d) consent

46. You can use self defence:
a) if you are attacked on the street and use only enough force to stop the assailant
b) you get drunk and think the guy across the bar is making fun of you and you punch him in the face to defend your honour
c) your trying to get on the O-train and someone pushes you down and steals your spot so you get up and push them with an equal amount of force.
d) None of these situations would allow for the use of self defence

47. Which of the following are not a level of mens rea?
a) intention
b) knowledge
c) recklessness
d) wilful blindness
e) penal negligence
f) these are all levels of mens rea

48. Objective mens rea is when…
a) a reasonable person would have avoided what happened
b) the offender would have avoided the situation
c) Justin Bieber would have avoided the situation
d) A reasonable person does not apply in objective mens rea

49. The three elements of actus reus are:
a) code, criminal, conclusion
b) conduct, circumstances, consequences
c) crime, outcome, repurcussions
d) crisis, conditions, corollary

50. Chris is liable for neglect if:
a) he is out for a jog and sees a child fall of the play structure and injure themselves and he just keeps running.
b) If his daughter is in need of blood but he doesn’t believe in blood transfusions and she dies
c) He doesn’t share his sandwich at school with his friend when they forget their lunch
d) He’s driving and slips on ice and ends up on the wrong side of the road when he gets in an accident

51. Which of the following is not one of the four stages a child molester must pass before offending according to the Four Preconditions Model?
a) motivation to sexually abuse
b) overcome internal inhibitions
c) overcome societal norms
d) overcome child’s resistance

52. A modus operendi is … while a signature is…
a) what they have to do to accomplish the crime… something the offender does to fulfil themselves emotionally
b) the weapon used in the crime… the victimology
c) something the offender does to receive gratification during the offence… how they accomplish the crime
d) knowledge of the victim… common characteristics of offenders
53. Recovered memories are?
a) remembering a post traumatic incident experience that is false
b) recollections of an event that have been suppressed
c) memories that form after the incident influenced by media and the police etc.
d) memories that form unconsciously in the mind

54. When an offender serves their sentence in a psychiatric facility until they are deemed sane and then serve the rest of their sentence in prison is?
a) guilty but mentally ill
b) not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder
c) fit to stand trial
d) Guilty under influence of mental disorder

55.Which of the following are a trait of psychopaths?
a) manipulative
b) impulsive
c) increased anxiety
d) all of the above
e) none of the above

56. Malingering is…
a) the fabrication of psychological symptoms
b) juveniles who participate crime because they are not active enough
c) falsely confessing to a crime
d) the cooling off period of a criminal between kills

57. Auguste Compte said that crime and criminality passes through 3 stages called?
a) proportional, directional, insertion
b) theological, metaphysical, positive
c) imitation, confusion, internalization
d) none of the above

Short Answer Questions:

What changes will Bill C- 10 bring forth in the future?

Name the 5 levels of mens rea and briefly explain.

Describe Cloward and Ohlin’ s theory on differential opportunity and delinquent subcultures.

In one or two sentences describe Merton’s anomie theory. Also, name the 2 parts of society and list and explain the five ways people respond to the strain caused them.

In Agnew’s General Strain Theory list and explain the three types of strain.

Describe some of the misconceptions associated with the NCRMD defence and fitness to stand trial.

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