Methods of Mathematical Education

Topics: Theory of multiple intelligences, Intelligence, Educational psychology Pages: 11 (3730 words) Published: August 27, 2013
Content
Introduction………………………………………………………………………….page 2 Jerome bruner’s theories of cognitive development…………………………………………………………………………page 3-4 Multiple Intelligence…………………………………………………......................page 5-6 Multiple Representation………………………………………………………..….page 7-8 Deway’s social constructivism and Gagne’s information processing model ………………………………………………………………………….....................page 9-10 Developing Teaching stretergies using constructvist models……………..…….Page 11-12 Main conclusion…………………………………………………………...………..page 13 Referencess……………………………………………………………………..…..page 14

Introduction
Various theories about learning have dominated the education process in different days. Invention of new theories which satisfied the disadvantages of old theories kept these changes active. Since each theorist has proved his view about the learning process, people appreciated their work through the application of the principles in the education. In this writing I will be looking into the different theories which I have learned in the class of mathematical education one. Each theory called out, its own believes and developed the less emphasized areas of the previous theory and there are also situations where the theorists argue saying his view for the theory is the best. In this portfolio I have included the ideas of different theorists and how I can make use of it while teaching. I also highlighted some of the points and examples, as well as my own views about the theories. Mainly five topics will be discussed in this writing. To conclude I have given some recommendation and reasons about the theories.

Jerome Bruner’s Theory of cognitive development
Introduction
Cognitive development is the construction of thought process, including remembering, problem solving,and decision –making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Intellectual development or cognitive development is one of the aspects of development a human being goes through from his birth until the day he/she dies. Bruner does not attach ages specifically to his theory. . It is his belief that students learn concepts best through discovery learning where the students use their own previous knowledge to construct their understanding of how things operate. “To promote concept discovery, the teacher presents the set of instances that will best help learners to develop an appropriate model of the concept (Driscoll, 2005).

Bruner's three stages of development include Enactive,Iconic and symbolic Enactive “knowledge is stored primarily in the form of motor responses.” (Alexander 2002). In this stage individuals are learning through motor skills and by experimenting with and learning to manipulate objects. An example would be teaching someone how to play the hand clapping game patty cake. In the game patty cake the motions are learned by doing the motion. It would be very difficult to try to teach someone this game by describe the actions verbally. Iconic “knowledge is stored primarily in the form of visual images ” (Alexander 2002). Human learning is generated by imagery in this stage. The individual is able to generate mental images of events. In the iconic stage it is very important to present a number of different visual aids to students to supplement teaching material. Examples include images, videos, charts and graphs.

Classroom Example – Unit on Whales
If trying to demonstrate the different sizes of the whales a teacher could show an image of a person standing next to a humpback whale which would demonstrate the size comparison between humans and humpbacks. The teacher could then show another image that would show an orca or gray whale next to a humpback. To follow up the images the teacher could then have the students graph the length of the whales in meters. This is simple and interesting Symbolic “knowledge is stored primarily as words, mathematical symbols, or in other symbol systems ” (Alexander...

References: Brooks, J. and Brooks, M. (1993). In Search of Understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms, ASCD
Edward.D and N. Mercer. Common Knowledge: The Development of Understanding in the Classroom. London: Methuen, 1987.
Davis.R.B, Constructivist Views of the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics. Washington, D.C. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1991.
Gredler, M. E. (1997). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (3rd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Derry, S. J. (1999). A Fish called peer learning: Searching for common themes. In A. M. O 'Donnell & A. King (Eds.),
Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: The theory in practice. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Lecture notes of Methametical Education one 2012.
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