Merger Types - Various Type of Merger
A merger refers to the process whereby at least two companies combine to form one single company. Business firms make use of mergers and acquisitions for consolidation of markets as well as for gaining a competitive edge in the industry. Merger types can be broadly classified into the following five subheads as described below. They are Horizontal Merger, Conglomeration, Vertical Merger, Product-Extension Merger and Market-Extension Merger. 1) Horizontal Merger refers to the merger of two companies who are direct competitors of one another. They serve the same market and sell the same product. Examples:
Staples, Inc., a superstore retailer of office supplies, wanted to acquire Office Depot, another giant retailer of office supplies. This action would have left the newly merged Staples in the position as the only large office supply superstore in most places around the country. This creates an unfair advantage for Staples in the market. Market research showed that Staples would have then been able to increase their prices up to 13 percent after the merger. The Federal Trade Commission recognized the results this action would have on the market and took steps to block the merger, saving billions of dollars for customers. 1) The Aluminum Group of China took over eight aluminum companies. In addition, the Aluminum Group of China acquired Shanghai Non-Ferrous Metals (Group) Company Ltd., which is a major copper firm in China.
2) Fujian Sedrin Brewery was acquired by InBev. This happened on 23rd January, 2006. InBev is the biggest beer brewery in the world and Fujian Sedrin is a prominent brewer in the southeastern region of China. After this merger, InBev has achieved the position of one of the biggest brewers in China. 2) Conglomeration refers to the merger of companies, which do not either sell any related products or cater to any related markets. Here, the two companies entering the merger process do not...
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