According to Marx, all political rule is class domination. Critically analyse. Class is not simply an ideology legitimising oppression: it denotes exploitative relations between people mediated by their relations to the means of production. In Marxian and similar theories, the term ‘class’ is used as a technical term connected with a theory of ownership and control. Political Rule is the exercise of power. According to Max Weber, Power is “the chance of man or a number of men to realize their own will in a communal action even against the resistance of others who are participating in the action”. Power is one of those words that is easy to understand but hard to define in a precise manner. It is the ability to influence decisions. There are 3 primary indicators of power: 1) Who benefits?
2) Who governs?
3) Who wins?
According to Pluralist, the existence of classes, political parties, status groups, interest groups testifies to the distribution of power. Whereas for Marxist, power is distributed according to the accumulation of capital, that is economic power. Marx believed that Western Society had developed through four main epochs: 1) Primitive Communism.
2) Ancient Society.
3) Feudal Society.
4) Capitalist Society.
Primitive Communism is the first of the Marxist epochs. It is defined by a communal characteristic that everyone would work together for the common good. In this epoch, no one had a major interest in personally owning anything. The accumulation of wealth wasn’t a massive thing. Community members would share their resources and possessions, to help each other survive in their conditions. Marx believed that this was true communism and the only time communism actually worked. For centuries humans lived in egalitarian societies, what Marx and Engels referred to as 'primitive communism', where all people were dependent on one another and co-operation was the guiding principle of society. However, as labor became more productive, society produced a surplus beyond its immediate needs. This created the conditions for class society - the minority who came firstly to administer and then to control and own this surplus protected their right to it by force. The class with economic dominance and power, the ruling class, created the state to protect itself, hold down its adversaries and guarantee that its will was done. Capital is a source of power that is capital under the umbrella of the economy. For Marxist, political power comes from economic power. Sudan, having an authoritarian rule clearly shows how political rule leads to class domination. People in the country face discrimation, oppression and they enjoy practically no freedom by the government. The ruling party is only there to maintain power and to have control over the means of production. Maintaining power is also to maintain their control over the means of production. People there are exploited and oppressed. There is practically no freedom; no freedom of expression, no freedom of press. Trade union rights are minimal and there are no independent unions. The Sudan Workers’ Trade Unions Federation has been co-opted by the government. All strikes must be approved by the government. Sudan having a GDP of 58.77 billion USD (2012), could help to bring improvements in the country, but however the ruling party does not really want to develop the country but instead to use the capital to better serve their own interest. Capital confers political power, which the bourgeois class uses to legitimatize and protect their property and consequent social relations. The power of the ruling class therefore stems from its ownership and control of the means of production. Under the Marxists view of capitalism, the ruling class, the capitalists or bourgeoisie, consists of those who own and control the means of production and thus are able to dominate and exploit the working class, getting them to labor enough to produce surplus- value, the basis for profit, interest and...
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