There are a number of reasons, which assist with the success of an organization. It’s not only the effectiveness and efficiency of getting things done through people that help contribute, but in particularly the managers themselves as they direct others within organizations. These managers are often stereotyped as being ‘leaders.’ By definition, a leader is someone who heavily influences others as they have managerial authority, Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent (Clark, 1997). In most cases this person is a manager, this is someone who works with and through others, coordinating their work, and their influence results in goals being achieved (Robbins, 2012). Fiedler’s Contingency Model suggests, “Leaders differ in the degree of their orientation toward the task versus toward the people.” (Fiedler, 2008, p307)
The case, ‘Toyota’s Tough Boss’ is an example of leadership being put into place, the standard of leadership Hiroshi Okuda illustrates, as a manager will be discussed in terms of the contemporary views on leadership. The leadership behaviors, styles and theories will also be discussed in general and that are related to Okuda.
Explain the different leadership styles (not theories) defined in the academic literature and discuss what style of leadership is the most appropriate in different environmental situations and with different categorizations of employees. (500 words)
There are three leadership styles, which consist of autocratic, democratic, and Laissez Faire. The leadership style autocratic is where the leader makes use of the power they have by taking advantage of the authority entitled to them, this process is done through actions, like decision making (Marquis & Huston, 2008). This form of leadership revolves around the transactional theory, this relates to the significance of the association, between the leader and their followers (Marquis & Huston, 2008). Autocratic leadership is usually effective in scenarios where supervision is required for tasks to be completed, and when the followers can challenge the authority of the leader. Additionally, this process can be effective in cases where the decision making time is reduced. Although, having said this, this leadership style is not effective when the followers are resentful. (Marquis & Huston, 2008).
The democratic leadership style is a participative leadership style, whereby it is based on the transformational theory. The essential concept of this form of leadership heavily focuses on change, and an idealistic leadership role with particular goals, of which enhance the individual and organizational performance. Democratic leadership is rather efficient when there is need for the follower to gain motivation, for example the need for each of them to gain one’s leadership skills. This form of leadership usually involves a participative tactic, the followers are given an opportunity to develop their leadership skills, through sharing the roles of decision-making amongst the leader and the followers. This process can sometimes lead to them becoming their own leaders. (Minder, 2005), and it is therefore believed that democratic approach to leadership is more effective over autocratic leadership. (Marquis & Huston, 2008).
Laissez Faire, is a style of leadership where “one believes in freedom of choice for the employees.” (Goodnight, 2004) The base of this style of leadership is in two parts. The first part consists of a “strong belief that the employees know their jobs best so leave them alone to do their jobs.” (Goodnight, 2004). Secondly, whoever the leader is, could be in touch with a political (election-based) position, this could lead to one not wanting to employ power and control for they could be afraid they won’t be reelected. For someone who is classified as a ‘Laissez Faire’ leader, there is...
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