Topics: Management, Organization, Business Pages: 136 (38776 words) Published: January 21, 2013
Unit 1

Evolution of Management Thought
Learning Outcome

After reading this unit, you will be able to: • • • • • Explain the basic features of Management and Organisation Understand various approaches to Management Philosophy Know about Mathematical and Behavioural Serial Schools of Management Identify the Contributions and Limitations of Scientific Management State Administrative Management

Time Required to Complete the unit
1. 2. 1st Reading: It will need 3 Hrs for reading a unit 2nd Reading with understanding: It will need 4 Hrs for reading and understanding a unit 3. 4. 5. Self Assessment: It will need 3 Hrs for reading and understanding a unit Assignment: It will need 2 Hrs for completing an assignment Revision and Further Reading: It is a continuous process

Content Map
1.1 1.2 Introduction Management and Organisation 1.2.1 Basic Features of Management 1.2.2 Organisation

1.2.3 Basic Features of Organisation Management Process and Organisational Behaviour 1

1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

Management as Art and Science Management as Profession Management as Process Management and Administration Various Approaches to Management Philosophy 1.7.1 1.7.2 Contributions and Limitations of Scientific Management Administrative Management


Mathematical and Behavioural Serial Schools of Management 1.8.1 1.8.2 1.8.3 1.8.4 The Human Relations Movement Mathematical/ Quantitative Approach Systems Approach Contingency Approach



1.10 Self Assessment Test 1.11 Further Reading


Management Process and Organisational Behaviour

1.1 Introduction
“The conventional definition of management is getting work done through people, but real management is developing people through work”. ~ Agha Hasan Abedi Management has developed and grown in leaps and bounds from a nearly insignificant topic in the previous centuries, to one of the integral ones of our age and economy. Management has evolved into a powerful and innovative force on which our society depends for material support and national well-being. The period between 1700 and 1850 is highlighted by the industrial revolution and the writings of the classical economists. The advent of the factory system during this period highlighted, for the first time, the importance of direction as a managerial function. As factories and jobs increased and a distinctive work culture began to take shape, appropriate management of all this became imperative. This development brought along with it new questions and problems to which adequate solutions were required. To find appropriate solutions to these problems, people began to recognise management as a separate field of study. In recent times, management has become a more scientific discipline having certain standardised principles and practices. The following is a breakdown of the evolution of management thought during its developmental period: • Early management approaches which are represented by scientific management, the administrative management theory and the human relations movement • Modern management approaches which are represented by scientific management, the administrative/management science approach, the systems approach and the contingency approach

1.2 Management and Organisation
Management in all business areas and organisational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing and controlling an organisation (a group of one or more people or entities) or efforts for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources. The definitions by different management thinkers are as follows:

Management Process and Organisational Behaviour


Management is the accomplishment of results through the efforts of other...
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