Literature Review on Homeless families with young children Instructor: James Krewman April 15, 2008 Overview of homelessness regarding families and children Homelessness isan international social problem but the United States and other developed nations seem to agree on its definitions; researchers have categorized homelessness as either being literal or precarious. The literal definition seem to refer to the most commonly seen forms of homeless. Meaning, those who are without a home, that live on the street, abandoned building/make-shift structure/in parks and people who live in shelters. The precarious definition involves those who are at an imminent risk of being homeless. They include: those who are temporarily doubled up with family or friends and those who are in substandard housing. Traditional characteristics of homeless people vs. the “new homeless” Meanwhile, the definition of homelessness seem to fall under certain subgroups. *Causes of h*omeless families These families end up being homeless as a result of sociostructural and psychological factors. The socio cultural factors involve changing labor markets, poverty, the housing system, and the nature of the welfare state while the psychological factors reflect individual agency, including alcohol dependence, substance use, social and behavioral problems. Other examples that seem to fall under both factors include a loss of benefits, eviction and domestic violence and the like. African Americans and other ethnic groups are found disproportionately among homeless families. Frequently, the mothers may end up in these situations that lead to homelessness because of a mental illness, substance abuse addiction and sometimes from an unfortunate circumstance such as losing their job without any form of maternity leave pay while there are in the later stages of pregnancy; Unfortunately, would comes next is a young mother and infant in a family shelter or doubled up with family or...
References: Barrow, S., & Laborde*, N. (2008, September).* Invisible Mothers: Parenting by Homeless Women Separated from Their Children. Gender Issues**, 25**(3), 157-172. Retrieved April 23, 2009, doi*:10.1007*/s12147-008-9058-4 Bruskas, D. (2008, May). Children in Foster Care: A Vulnerable Population at Risk. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing**, 21**(2), 70-77. Retrieved April 23, 2009, doi:10.1111/j.1744-6171.2008.00134.x *Culhane, J., Webb, D., Grim, S., *Metraux*, S., & *Culhane*, D. (2003, September).* Prevalence of Child Welfare Services Involvement among Homeless and Low-Income Mothers: A Five-year Birth Cohort Study. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare**, 30**(3), 79-95. Retrieved April 23, 2009, from Academic Search Premier *database*. Nelson, K. (1992, November). Fostering Homeless Children and Their Parents Too: The Emergence of Whole-Family Foster Care. Child Welfare**, 71**(6), 575-584. Retrieved April 23, 2009, from Academic Search Premier *database*. Pardeck, J. (2005, May). An exploration of child maltreatment among homeless families: implications for family policy. Early Child Development & Care**, 175**(4), 335-342. Retrieved April 23, 2009, doi*:10.1080*/0300443042000244019 Park, J., Metraux*, S., *Brodbar*, G., & *Culhane*, D. (2004, September).* Child Welfare Involvement *Among* Children in Homeless Families. Child Welfare**, 83**(5), 423-436. Retrieved April 23, 2009, from Academic Search Premier *database*.
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