The problem of migration is very relevant now because many have the opportunity to get free access to the territory of foreign states. Most of the people go to the territory of the other country ( or city ) in an attempt to find at least a temporary or a better paying job. Actively taking place all over the world the process of internationalization of production is accompanied by the internationalization of the labor force. Labour migration has become part of international economic relations. Migration flows rushing from one region and country to another . Giving rise to some problems , labor migration provides clear benefits to countries hosting the workforce and delivering it.
Types of international labor migration and its causes
Mass migration has become one of the characteristic phenomena of the world community the second half of the XX century. Population migration is the movement of people across borders of certain areas with a change of residence or return to it. International ( external) migration exists in different forms: work, family , recreation , tourism , etc. In this chapter , basically, will focus on issues of international labor migration , the international labor market . International labor migration in the second half of the XX century has become an important part of the process of internationalization of the international economic life. Labor potential , being the most important factor of production, is looking for his best use not only in the framework of the national economy, but also in the scope of the international economy. International labor market covers multidirectional flow of labor across national borders.
International labor market brings together national and regional labor markets . International labor market is in the form of labor migration. At the beginning of 1995 there were an estimated more than 35 million migrant workers against 3, 2 million in 1960. If we assume that each migrant - worker has three dependents , the number of floating population in the mid-90 's, more than 100 million people.
International labor market exists along with other world markets , for example , goods and services, capital and information. The labor force , moving from one country to another, offers itself as a commodity , carries an international labor migration. There are five basic types of international labor migration :
1) working on the contract , which clearly stipulated period of stay in the host country. This is mainly seasonal workers who come to harvest , and the unskilled or low-skilled workers employed on temporary work , for example in the field of tourism ;
2) professionals who are distinguished by a high level of training , the availability of appropriate education and practical work experience. This group also includes representatives of the teaching staff and students;
3) illegal immigrants , which include foreigners or with an expired tourist visa to take up employment . Millions of members of this group reside permanently in the United States , Europe , Japan, South America and even Africa ;
4) persons, that is, to move to a permanent place of residence. This group of workers is focused primarily on the move in the industrialized countries ;
5 ) refugees - people forced to emigrate from their countries because of any threat to their life and work .
International labor migration - one of the most difficult elements in international economic relations . This is due primarily to the fact that , in contrast to the international exchange of goods and the movement of capital, the process involved real people. The causes of labor migration are the factors , both economic and non-economic . The reasons for non-economic types are: political, national , religious, racial , family and other economic reasons are rooted in different economic level of development of individual countries.
The labor force moves from countries with low standards of living in...
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