Jung, Gardner, and Freud Comparison

Topics: Sigmund Freud, Unconscious mind, Psychology Pages: 3 (1152 words) Published: March 14, 2005
In today's society, education is more liberal, allowing people to think for themselves and providing them with a broader education. This differs from many years ago, when education was more conservative. Education was very basic, consisting of only academic classes and no electives. People with a more conservative education would never go against what they were taught. However, liberally educated people of today can go against what they are taught, research it themselves, and make new conclusions about their studies. A liberal education enables people to deal with the forces that control their life. It frees them from the restraints in everyday life. Having such a broad education allows people to deal with such forces. Four psychologists have written essays and constructed theories that can agree that liberal education is of a greater stature than conservatively educated. The essays are "The Theory of Multiple Intelligences," written by Howard Gardner, "The Personal and Collective Unconscious," written by Carl Jung, "The Allegory of the Cave," written by Plato, and "From the Interpretation of Dreams," written by Sigmund Freud.

In Howard Gardner's "Theory of Multiple Intelligences" he states that there are seven different kinds of intelligence. He alludes that everyone has the potential to be intelligent in an unconventional way. Gardner writes, "The question of the optimal definition of intelligence looms large in our inquiry. Indeed it is at the level of this definition that the theory of multiple intelligences diverges from the traditional points of view"(370). If one were to have a more conservative education, Gardner's ideas would have been absurd because nobody would have understood them. People would have only understood intelligence as being smart in school. People with a conservative education would never look deeper into things. On the other hand, a liberal education teaches people to challenge what they have learned, if they do not...
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