Judah meaning descent of Jews.
Jews don’t eat pork.
Dress modestly just like Islam.
Sephardic: Spain, Palestine and North Africa
Ashkenazi: Eastern Europe and Russia
Torah: Word of God.
Monotheist: Belief in one God.
Shema: Prayer, pray to One God.
Orthopraxy & Orthodoxy:
Ortho = Correct, right.
Praxy = Practice.
Doxy = Thought or belief/opinion.
Tanakh: The whole of Hebrew bible.
Exodus: Deliverance of Israelites from Egypt under Moses’ leadership. (250 B.C.E) lands fall apart. Mitzvah: 10 commandments given.
Henotheists: Belief and loyalty to one God & exclusion to all others. Canaanites: Gods.
Ba’al & Ashirah: fertility Gods.
Competition between Ba’al & Ashirah vs. Canaanites.
Then Elijah Muhammed told them to pick one God.
11th century B.C.E – Israelites have now conquered Canaanites. Joshua: 6th book of the bible. Joshua sets up the land to be governed by 12 tribes ruled over by judges to equal each other but not fully united.
Period of Monarchy
David ruled (c. 1000 – 960 B.C.E). He was the 2nd king of kings, represents Golden Age of Israel. Was an empire, Solomon.
David brings tribes together under one king = Called Israel. Golden Age of Jews = David’s era.
Saul = 1st king – C. 1036 B.C.E from tribe of Benjamin
David’s son = Solomon ruled (960 – 21 B.C.E) + builds First temple (586 – 587). 587 ends the period of the 1ST Temple
Judah = Kingdom in south + 12 tribes
Israel* = kingdom in the north (north of Dead sea)
Assyrians = become superpowers + conquer Northern Kingdom, Israel letting the Southern Kingdom, Judea, stand alone letting Babylonians destroy it. After 586-587 – with destruction of 1st temple gets rebuilt and created another temple. Second temple – Judaism.
Assyrians destroys southern kingdom. Came out of Syria & is now Iraq. King Nebuchadnezzar: destroys first temple.
3 new features of Judaism
Diaspora Jew: scattered seeds. Jews scattered overseas Mediterranean, no longer in their lands but in other people’s. Septuagint (LXX) – Hebrew bible turning into Greek. Jews who went to Egypt & stayed there. 6th century: Persians = Persia = Iran of Today.
King Cyrus: ethnic heritage of all Iran is Persian. Calls back Israelites back to their land & rebuilds the temple that was destroyed by Babylon. Second temple is rebuilt
Israelites invited to return (538 B.C.E)
2nd temple Judaism rebuilt & completed (515 B.C.E)
Hellenism: Greekization of the world had a giant effect – Greek culture. Ezra: start collection of the scriptures in 430 B.C.E
Sadducees: have all power
Sicarii: rebel groups
Zealots: rebel groups
Christians : go own way.
Siccaris and Zealots: rebel groups who are not long with standing, violet resistance and movement to Roman occupation in 1st century. Zealots: named because of their religious beliefs. Only believe in their God and beliefs. Siccaris: named because of their daggers of assignation.
66-3 C.E = Jewish war
Rome destroys second temple.
Judaism is formed in 515 C.E
Western Wall : jews go there to pray, holy site remaining part of the herots temple that romans destroyed in 70 C.E RABBINIC JUDAISM: New religion
Synagogue (where religion happens) vs. Temple (place of sacrifice) sacrifice religious person gives back to God. Prayer vs. Sacrifice
Jerusalem: center of religion.
Talmud: Combination of the oral Torah of Pharicees (
Rabbi: teacher (different from priest)
Rabbinic Judaism: led by rabbis and defined by Rabbis.
Saadia (12th century)
Judah Halevi (12th century)
Moses Maimonides: Jewish philosopher first to bring in Greek and roman philosophy + to answer questions of free will and divine acceptance. Yiddish: new language invented Hebrew words written in German. Kabbalah: jewish form/school of mysctism. Different from mainstream branches. Rejects boundaries that separates religious communities, think we are all the same everywhere. Shabattai Zvi: becomes new messiah. Seen as the person to save Jews. Bal shem tov: master of the good name is now besht. Heal people on behalf of God’s name.
MODERN SECRETARIANSIM + REFORM JUDAISM
Moses Mendelssohn: LIBERATION OF TORAH.
CONSERVATIVE JUDAISM = if it’s in scriptures, you can’t debate it. Zacharias Frankel = Germany
Solomon = USA
Both in 19th century both have stricter interpretations of Torah. ORTHODOX JUDAISM: is what always existed, doesn’t have a founder. But in response of breaking away to reform, orthodox gains a champion. SAMSON RAPHAEL HIRSCH: says reform is not a better way of being Jewish. Traditional Jewish Orthodox is what’s legitimate. TORAH IS NOT TO BE NEGOTIATED.
Theodor Herzl: argued that in 19th century, that until Jews had own land and own military, they would always be at mercy of host nation. Holocaust shaping event for Judaism.
Shoah: Hebrew word for holocaust
Anti-Semitism: hatred of the Jews by Christians is what allowed the holocaust to happen. State of Israel in 1948
Jewish Muslim relations = Palestinians.
Problem is that Jewish people want to inhabit a land that is now largely a Muslim land. Israel is 66% non religion and 17% Muslim.