Infection control is one of the important issues in healthcare settings. Many of the normal flora organisms in our body system react to antibiotics, which makes these organisms resistant to antibiotic treatment. Teaching infection control through learning of isolation precaution can decrease the spread of infection in critical care units. The goal of this project is to ensure each person understands the different isolation precautions and practices to minimize the spread of these bacteria to staff, visitors and other patients in this unit. Nurses can educate and reinforce protocols to those individuals who need further teaching regarding isolation.
The overuse of antimicrobial agents is one of the major factors in the development and spread of drug resistance in organisms, as well as in colonization and infection by drug-resistant organisms. Treatment regimens for all infections should be based on susceptibility test results when available. There are bacteria that require contact precautions such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant enterococci(VRE), extended-spectrum beta-lactamses(ESBL), Acinetobacter baumannii, Clostridium difficile (C-diff), carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR). We will focus on commonly found organisms such as MRSA and C-Diff.
One of the commonly seen bacteria in critical care units is MRSA, which is a type of staph bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics called beta-lactams that includes antibiotics such as oxacillin, penicillin and amoxicillin. Commonly patients who contract this bacterium are those with surgical wound infections, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections and pneumonia. (CDC,2010)
Another common bacterium seen in critical care units is Clostridium difficile which is a bacterium that causes inflammation of the colon, known as coliis. People, who have other illnesses or conditions
References: Deron C. Burton, D.C., Edwards, J.R., Horan,C.T., Jernigan, J.A., and Fridkin,S.K. (2009). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Central Line– Associated Bloodstream Infections in US Intensive Care Units, 1997-2007. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 301(7):727-736. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.153 Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). MRSA infection :definition of MRSA. Retrieved on October 20, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/mrsa/definition/index.htmlHalcomb, E. J., Griffiths, R., & Fernandez, R. (2008). The role of patient isolation and compliance with isolation practices in the control of nosocomial MRSA in acute care. International Journal Of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 6(2), 206-224. doi:10.1111/j.1744-1609.2008.00089.xCenter for Disease (2010). Healthcare-Association Infection (HAIs) Clostridium difficile infection (CDI,C.diff ) http://www.cdc.gov/HAI/organisms/cdiff/Cdiff_infect.html