AP World History
Change Over Time: Iran
The Persian Empire, now known as Iran, was the most powerful empire in the Middle East. It’s located in southwest Asia with Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkey, and the Caspian Sea as its borders. Iran broke apart of the Persian Empire in 1930. The country still managed to maintain its identity by keeping its own language and interpretation of Islam.
Khomeini was an Iranian religious and political leader who made Iran the world's first Islamic republic in 1979. In 1962, Khomeini was arrested for his opposition to the pro-Western regime of the Shah. His arrest raised him to the position of national hero. In 1964, he was exiled, living in Turkey, Iraq and then France. He still urged his supporters to overthrow the shah. By the late 1970s, the shah became hated and there were riots, strikes and mass demonstrations across the country. In January 1979, the shah's government collapsed and he and his family fled into exile. February 1st, Khomeini returned to Iran in accomplishment. There was a national vote and Khomeini won. He declared an Islamic republic and was appointed Iran's political and religious leader for life. Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi ruled Iran from 1941-1979. He devoted most of his rule building a stronger Iranian army. During the 1970’s Iran was insisting change. Students were killed by the army protesting against the shah. This caused more rage from the Iranian citizens. Opposition to the shah’s rule continued in early 1979. He and his wife left the country. Abolhasan Bani-Sadr is elected the first President of the Islamic Republic chosen by the Americans. This outraged Iran and months later students seized the American embassy. Holding 69 hostages for 444 days. On January 21, 1981, the hostages were set free. President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was known for being unsuccessful with trying to make Iran democratic and free in 1997. Today, Iran’s political system combines elements of parliamentary...
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