Introduction to Power MOSFET

Pages: 13 (3824 words) Published: June 21, 2013
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Two power MOSFETs in the surface-mount package D2PAK. Each of these components can sustain a blocking voltage of 120 volts and a continuous current of 30 amperes. A power MOSFET is a specific type of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) designed to handle significant power levels. Compared to the other power semiconductor devices, for example IGBT, Thyristor, its main advantages are high commutation speed and good efficiency at low voltages. It shares with the IGBT an isolated gate that makes it easy to drive. It was made possible by the evolution of CMOS technology, developed for manufacturing Integrated circuits in the late 1970s. The power MOSFET shares its operating principle with its low-power counterpart, the lateral MOSFET. The power MOSFET is the most widely used low-voltage (that is, less than 200 V) switch. It can be found in most power supplies, DC to DC converters, and low voltage motor controllers. Contents

1 Basic structure
o1.1 On-state resistance
o1.2 Breakdown voltage/on-state resistance trade-off
o1.3 Body diode
2 Switching operation
o2.1 Capacitances
2.1.1 Gate to source capacitance
2.1.2 Gate to drain capacitance
2.1.3 Drain to source capacitance
o2.2 Other dynamic elements
2.2.1 Packaging inductances
3 Limits of operation
o3.1 Gate oxide breakdown
o3.2 Maximum drain to source voltage
o3.3 Maximum drain current
o3.4 Maximum temperature
o3.5 Safe operating area
4 Latch-up (LU)
5 Technology
o5.1 Layout
5.1.1 Cellular structure
o5.2 Structures
5.2.1 P-substrate power MOSFET
5.2.2 VMOS
5.2.3 UMOS (also called Trench-MOS)
5.2.4 Super Junction Super Junction Deep-Trench Technology
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading

Basic structure [edit]

Fig. 1: Cross section of a VDMOS, showing an elementary cell. Note that a cell is very small (some micrometres to some tens of micrometres wide), and that a power MOSFET is composed of several thousand of them. Several structures had been explored at the beginning of the 1980s, when the first Power MOSFETs were introduced. However, most of them have been abandoned (at least until recently) in favour of the Vertical Diffused MOS (VDMOS) structure (also called Double-Diffused MOS or simply DMOS). The cross section of a VDMOS (see figure 1) shows the "verticality" of the device: It can be seen that the source electrode is placed over the drain, resulting in a current mainly vertical when the transistor is in the on-state. The "diffusion" in VDMOS refers to the manufacturing process: the P wells (see figure 1) are obtained by a diffusion process (actually a double diffusion process to get the P and N+ regions, hence the name double diffused). Power MOSFETs have a different structure than the lateral MOSFET: as with most power devices, their structure is vertical and not planar. In a planar structure, the current and breakdown voltage ratings are both functions of the channel dimensions (respectively width and length of the channel), resulting in inefficient use of the "silicon estate". With a vertical structure, the voltage rating of the transistor is a function of the doping and thickness of the N epitaxial layer (see cross section), while the current rating is a function of the channel width. This makes possible for the transistor to sustain both high blocking voltage and high current within a compact piece of silicon. It is worth noting that power MOSFETs with lateral structure exist. They are mainly used in high-end audio amplifiers. Their advantage is a better behaviour in the saturated region (corresponding to the linear region of a bipolar transistor) than the vertical MOSFETs. Vertical MOSFETs are designed for switching applications, so they are only used in On or Off states. On-state resistance [edit]

Fig.2: Contribution of the...

References: 2. ^ Pierre Aloïsi, Les transistors MOS de puissance in Interrupteurs électroniques de puissance, traite EGEM, under the direction of Robert Perret, Lavoisier, Paris, 2003 [in French] ISBN 2-7462-0671-4
3. ^ Duncan A
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