I.1 How to define culture?
Culture is a system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors and artifacts that the members of society use to interact with their world and with one another. It is a combination of thoughts, feelings, attitudes, beliefs, values, and behavior pattern that are shared by racial, religious, ethnic or social group of people. Anthropologist James Spradley believes culture to be :”the acquired knowledge people use to interpret experience and generate behavior”. Culture can relate to a country (national culture), a part of a community (sub-culture) or an organization (corporate culture). It is widely known that a person is not born with a culture, and that culture is learned throughout a person’s life. Culture includes all that a person has learned regarding values and norms , customs and traditions, beliefs and religion, rituals and artefacts (tangible symbols representing culture such as Tokyo Tower or The Eiffel Tower). Usually people make assumptions about a person’s beliefs or behavior based on a single cultural indicator, especially race or ethnicity, when in reality, a person’s cultural identity is a complex interlace of all the cultural groups he/she belongs to, groups that influence his/her values, beliefs, and behaviors. Often culture is thought of as the food, the music, clothing and holidays a groups of people share, but it is much larger actually than just the visible traditions. I.2 Material and Imaterial culture
Material culture refers to the actual cultural objects that are made by man whereas imaterial culture refers to cultural ideas, myths, stories, cultural attitudes and behaviors. „A difference in the speed of development of material culture might lead to a cultural lag where two parts of culture no longer correspond.” Material culture has two important components: technology and economy. Technology includes the techniques used in order to create material goods. The technological level varies and the society that belongs to a certain culture has a level of technological knowledge that manifests itself differently. Economics represents the manner in which people use their capacities in order to obtain benefits. Economics include the production of goods and services, distribution, consumption, exchange tools and the income obtained due to public services. The way in which people work and consumption, is mostly determined by technology. I.3 Culture and Nation
A nation or even a certain country represents a political unit whereas culture refers first and foremost to groups of people united in common history, social life and ideas not necessarily organized in a national political unit. There can be different cultures in one nation. I.4 Cultural identity
All people are members of a cultural group, and develop cultural identities based on those memberships and influences. There is a strong and well-defined culturally sustaining connection between geographical place and cultural experience. This connections constituted one’s and one’s community’s cultural identity. Cultural identity development is an ongoing process, as we are exposed to more and different sets of beliefs and values, and may choose to adopt ones that were not part of our original upbringing. Cultural identity is built within the individual, but it is constantly influenced by the interactions among and between people in society. Cultural identity is formed by socio-cultural and historical perspectives that interact with psychological and intrapersonal characteristics so that all are present in learning. Culture is part of the external influences that have a great impact on the consumer. That means that culture is represented by the influences that are inflicted on the consumer by other individuals. Culture is a complex whole which includes the following elements: knowledge, belief, art, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by a person, member of a society. I.5 Dealing...
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